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Union Army Artillery Gun Crew

c. 1862

via the J. Paul Getty Museum, not in copyright
Union Colonel James M. Schoonmaker 

Was only in his early twenties when he led the 14th Pennsylvania Cavalry during the Civil War 

He later received the Medal of Honor 

Image via Library of Congress, no known restrictions
On July 29th, 1862 Confederate spy Belle Boyd was arrested by Federal officers.

Upon the search of her bedroom, officers found and confiscated her pistol. In her memoirs Belle wrote: "The pistol now occupies a conspicuous place in the War Department at Washington, and is entered in the catalogue of spoils in the following words: —  "A trophy captured from the celebrated rebel Belle Boyd."

Image: Belle Boyd sometime before 1900 via Wikimedia Commons, public domain
Regimental drum corps

c. 1864

by Mathew Brady via Wikimedia Commons, public domain
Fort Sumner, near Susan Clark's house, Fair Oaks

c. 1861-1862

via Wikimedia Commons, public domain
Falmouth, Va. Capt. Charles H. Howard, aide to Gen. Oliver O. Howard, on horseback at Army of the Potomac headquarters

Photo taken c. 1862-1863

via Wikimedia Commons, public domain
"Four Sons of Union Veterans of the Civil War, Wearing Grand Army of the Republic Encampment Medals”

c. 1890

via Wikimedia Commons, no known restrictions
Soldiers in front of a tent, possibly members of the 7th New York Infantry at Camp Cameron, Washington, D.C.

c. 1861-1865

via Library of Congress, no known restrictions 
https://www.loc.gov/pictures/item/2010647920/
Union General Frederick Tracy Dent who was Ulysses S. Grant’s brother-in-law and classmate. 

Grant also named his first son after him.

via Wikimedia Commons, public domain
James W. Perrine, young clerk killed in Lawrence Massacre

- August 21st, 1863

Image via Library of Congress, no known restrictions 
https://www.loc.gov/pictures/resource/ppmsca.56451/
Johnny Clem, a few years after the American Civil War 

c. 1867

via Wikimedia Commons, public domain
Bringing parrott gun into position on board the gun boat "Mendota”

- 1864

via Wikimedia Commons, public domain
Tad Lincoln in uniform
 
Only lived to the age of 18

Image via Wikimedia Commons, public domain
Despite losing his right arm earlier in the Civil War, General Oliver Otis Howard continued his service at the Battles of Antietam, Chancellorsville, Gettysburg, Chattanooga and others.

He was awarded the Medal of Honor nearly 30 years following the Civil War.

As one of the institution’s founders, Howard University in Washington, D.C. is named in his honor.

Image of Oliver Otis Howard via Wikimedia Commons, public domain
Title: "Group of Union officers who escaped from Confederate prison at Columbia, S.C., in the fall of 1864 also three guides procured in the mountains of Tennessee No. 1. Capt. M.M. Bassett, Co. E 53rd Ills. Inf. No. 7. Capt. T.P. Young & A.S. Stewart, 4th Kty. who with six others attempted to escape by running the guard at two o'clock a.m. Nov. 10th 1864. The other 6 were recaptured & killed. No. 2. Col. W.S. Marshall. No. 3. Capt. Dobbs. No. 4. Fowler. No. 5. M. Hoffman. No. 6. Page. No. 9 Jno. McAdams. Nos. 10, 11, & 12 guides.”

via Library of Congress, no known restrictions
C.S.A. Veteran, Sgt. J.J. Dackett, wearing hat with bullet holes received in the Battle of Chickamauga in September of 1863

via Library of Congress, no known restrictions
Major General Gouverneur Kemble Warren 

During the second day of the Battle of Gettysburg Warren, on his own accord, directed Union Forces to hold the high ground (Little Round Top).
Warren’s action, to many historians, is considered to be one of the the most important decisions for the North during the Civil War as it prevented Confederate victory at Gettysburg. 

Image via Wikimedia Commons, public domain
"General Sherman was in subordinate command, but in his field of action he was the uniformly wise, shrewd, daring, and successful leader. 
Wrote General Grant : 'His services as division commander in the advance on Corinth, I will venture to say, were appreciated by the new general-in-chief beyond any other division commander.’ He was appointed major-general of volunteers, dating from May 1st, 1862.”

From: Life and military career of Major-General William Tecumseh Sherman by P.C. Headley, published in 1868 
https://archive.org/details/lifemilitarycare00hea/page/87/mode/1up
Source says not in copyright 

Image: Painting of William Tecumseh Sherman, 1866 via Wikimedia Commons, public domain
114th Pennsylvania Infantry 

- 1864

via Wikimedia Commons, public domain
Major General John Charles Frémont of General Staff Regular Army Infantry Regiment, in uniform during the American Civil War.

About 20 years earlier Frémont along with Kit Carson led expeditions and gathered important details of the West that paved the way for many American pioneers who would travel the Oregon Trail. 

Image via Wikimedia Commons, public domain
Union soldier of the 7th New York Militia in uniform with bayoneted rifle standing in front of other soldiers who are seated inside tent.
Young African American man is next to him shining shoes. 

- 1860s

Members of the 7th New York Militia were called to provide order to Manhattan in the aftermath of the draft riots of 1863 which occurred less than 2 weeks after the Battle of Gettysburg

Image via Wikimedia Commons, public domain
Crew of the USS Unadilla with American flag

c. early 1860s

via Wikimedia Commons, public domain
Pontoon across Rappahannock River, Va. showing cavalry column 

c. 1860-1865

via Wikimedia Commons, public domain
"Colonel Hayes was wounded, and asked her to 
come at once. Neither the severity of his wound 
nor the place where he was to be found were given her. She started, in company with her brother-in-law, Mr. Platt, of Columbus, with only this vague information. They spent six days on the journey, and in their search in the hospitals in Baltimore, Washington, and other places, only to be met always with the word, "Colonel Hayes’s name is not to be found in our list of wounded." At last, worn out with fatigue and despair, they went a second time to the Patent Office, then an improvised hospital. As she was descending the steps after another fruitless morning’s search she saw several wounded and battered soldiers with the badge of the 23d Ohio on their caps. Almost frantic, she called out to them to tell her where she might find their colonel. The boys looked their astonished dismay. "Why, it is Mrs. Hayes," they said. They gathered around her, gave her the desired information, and tried to comfort her with their pity. In relating it she said, "I remember how it all looked, the time of day, the wounded men all around me, my own wretchedness ;" and adds, with pathetic significance : "I have never been in the Patent Office since." She reached her husband twelve hours later in the little village of Middletown, Md. She says : "I found him in a small room, in a little brick house, doing well, but very anxious about me. He greeted me with the sorrowful badinage”: "And so, dear, you stopped to do Baltimore and Washington before coming to me, did you?”

From: Lucy Webb Hayes, a memorial sketch by Mrs. John Davis, published in 1890
https://archive.org/details/memorialsketch00lucyrich/page/20/mode/1up
Source says not in copyright 

Image: Mrs. Rutherford B. Hayes via NYPL Digital Collections, no known restrictions
A cabinet card of "William Field...The oldest G. A. R. veteran that served through the war. (Reverse side reads) Born at Deerfield, Oct. 27, 1800. Commissioned ensign in 2d Regt. of Infantry, Mass. Militia, June 8. 1830. Captain in 1st Regt. Infantry, Mass. Militia, June 17, 1833. Appointed Justice of the Peace by Gov. Marcus Morton, March 11, 1840. Again appointed Justice of the Peace by Gov. John A. Andrew, March 13, 1861 Enrolled in Co. A, 3th Mass. Regt., July 13, 1862. Honorably discharged June 2. 1863. Now living at Franklin, Mass., June 17, 1886.”

via Library of Congress, no known restrictions
Union Officers, 4th Corps, Army of the Cumberland in camp

c. 1861-1865

via Wikimedia Commons, public domain
Union General Irvin McDowell and staff at Arlington House (home of Robert E. Lee) in Virginia.

- 1862 

via Library of Congress, no known restrictions
Civil War veteran Henry Warren Howe, Post 29, G.A.R., with G.A.R. insignia and badges

- 1899

via Library of Congress, no known restrictions
A cabinet card of Miss Maj. Pauline Cushman, the famous Union Scout and Spy of the U.S. Secret Service, Army of the Cumberland

Pauline was able gather details of Confederate missions but was apprehended a few times.
She was sentenced to death, but due to illness her execution was delayed. Luckily, the Union Army advanced near the area where she was held in Tennessee and her life was spared.

Image via J. Paul Getty Museum, not in copyright
Mexican-American War Veteran Philip Kearny went to France, fought in European battles and became the first American citizen to receive the Légion d'honneur, the French order of merit. 
He later returned to America and fought in the American Civil War where he gave his life at the Battle of Chantilly.

Image: Union Major General Philip Kearny via Wikimedia Commons, public domain
Grand Review of The Army in Washington D.C.

- 1865

You can see the nearly completed dome of the U.S. Capitol building in the distance. Finishing touches to the dome’s interior where completed in January 1866. 

Image via Library of Congress, no known restrictions
Union Soldiers seated on a cliff at Lookout Mountain in Tennessee 

On today’s date November 24th, 1863 Union forces stormed and captured Lookout Mountain. 

Image via Wikimedia Commons, public domain
The union generals. Center and then clockwise from top: U.S. Grant Lieut. Genl. Stephen A. Hurlbut M.G. James B. McPherson M.G. Lew Wallace M.G. W.T. Sherman M.G. Don Carlos Buell M.G. John A. McClernand M.G.

via NYPL Digital Collections, no known restrictions
93 year old Civil War Veteran who joined the Wisconsin Cavalry when he was 18 explains medals to a girl from Brooklyn at the N.Y. World’s Fair 

c. 1939-1940

via New York Public Library Digital Collections, no known restrictions
General James Garfield 

via Wikimedia Commons, no known restrictions
Dedication of Gettysburg Battlefield in November of 1863

via Library of Congress, no known restrictions
Union Major Daniel McCook who was the patriarch of the "Fighting McCooks” a family group of fighting Union men during the American Civil War.

Daniel signed on as a volunteer in his early 60s.
Sadly, he was killed at the age of 65 defending his country during the Battle of Buffington Island on the Ohio River in 1863. 

Image via Wikimedia Commons, public domain
Nashville, Tenn. Federal outer line

- December 16th, 1864

Image via Library of Congress, no known restrictions
Provost Marshals of 3rd Army Corps, December, 1863

via Library of Congress, no known restrictions
USS Monitor crew in 1862

via Wikimedia Commons, public domain
Philadelphia born Margaret Elizabeth Breckinridge

Civil War nurse who cared for countless soldiers

Passed away at the age of 32
Morris Island, S.C. Federal mortars aimed at Fort Sumter, with crews 

- 1865

via Wikimedia Commons, public domain
13-inch mortar known as "The Dictator” in Petersburg, Virginia 

c. 1864 

Image via Library of Congress, no known restrictions
Sergeant Boston Corbett of the 16th N.Y. Cavalry, who shot John Wilkes Booth in 1865

Corbett spent nearly half of the year prior (1864) at Andersonville as a POW. 

Image via Library of Congress, no known restrictions
Union soldiers at Fort Corcoran in Arlington, Virginia prepare a 24 pound siege gun used to defend Washington D.C. during the American Civil War.

c. early 1860s

via Wikimedia Commons, public domain
John E. Cummins of the 50th, 99th, and 185th Ohio Infantry regiments in Union uniform next to a horse

- early 1860s

via Wikimedia Commons, public domain
Major General John Sedgwick of the Union Army standing proudly while holding his sword near Old Glory 

Sedgwick gave his life defending Liberty during the Battle of Spotsylvania Court House in 1864.

Two counties in two states (Kansas and Colorado) are named in his honor 

Image via Wikimedia Commons, public domain
Dr. Mary Walker, surgeon during the American Civil War wearing her Medal of Honor 

Mary Walker was born on November 26th, 1832 in Oswego, New York.

Image via Wikimedia Commons, public domain
Five Union Cavalry Generals 
Philip Sheridan, James W. Forsyth, Wesley Merritt, Thomas C. Devin and George A. Custer.

c. 1863 

via Wikimedia Commons, public domain
"Brigadier General Robert M. West of Battery G, 1st Pennsylvania Light Artillery Battery and 5th Pennsylvania Cavalry Regiment in uniform, with his daughter on his lap”

- early 1860s

via Wikimedia Commons, public domain
Capt. James M. Robertson and officers at Fair Oaks, Virginia. 

- 1862

via Wikimedia Commons, public domain
A photo of William Tecumseh Sherman in his later years 

Did you know that the famous Union General who led the "March to The Sea” during the American Civil War lived out his later years in Manhattan, N.Y.?

He planned to move to St. Louis, but he and his family settled in a brownstone on 71st street just west of Central Park.
His home had a large library that was filled with military books and it was adorned with his battle maps and photos from the war.

He died in 1891 at the age of 71, coincidentally the same number as the Upper West Side street where he lived in NYC.

Image via Wikimedia Commons, public domain
Richard D. Dunphy of the U.S. Navy

Wounded during the Battle of Mobile Bay on August 5th, 1864

via Library of Congress, no known restrictions 
https://www.loc.gov/pictures/item/2016649621/
Reunion of Confederate and Federal veterans at Gettysburg

- 1913

via Wikimedia Commons, public domain
Helen L. Gilson, Civil War nurse who treated countless soldiers during numerous battles including Gettysburg, Antietam and Petersburg.

via Library of Congress, no known restrictions 
https://www.loc.gov/pictures/item/2018653947/
A small African American boy sitting in front of Union Generals Barry, Slocum, Newton, Franklin and others.

- 1862

via Wikimedia Commons, public domain
Private Franklin Swank of the 21st Ohio Infantry Regiment 

Private Swank died at the age of 17 in November 1863 of wounds received during the Battle of Chickamauga two months earlier.

Image via Library of Congress, no known restrictions
Union General Charles Griffin was born on December 18th, 1825 in Granville, Ohio.

During the American Civil War he fought at the battles of Bull Run (1st and 2nd), Antietam, Gettysburg and many others.
He was present at Appomattox during the surrender of Robert E. Lee. 

He lived only a few years after the Civil War and died at the age of 41 after contracting yellow fever. 

Image: General Charles Griffin in the 1860s via Wikimedia Commons, no known restrictions
Group of infantry from the American Civil War 

via NYPL Digital Collections, no known restrictions
🇺🇸 Distinguished Veterans in American History 🇺🇸

Joshua L. Chamberlain 

"In 1861, he was elected Professor of Modern Languages, and in July, 1862, was granted leave of absence for two years for the purpose of pursuing studies in Europe. The need at this time of the Republic for all its able-bodied citizens caused him, however, to give up the European trip and to offer his services for action in the field. In August, 1862, he went to the front as Lieutenant-Colonel of the Twentieth Regiment of Maine Volunteers. In May, he received commission as Colonel, the duty of which post he had been fulfilling for some months. His regiment was included with the Fifth Corps, and at Gettysburg on the second of July, 1863, it held the extreme left of the Union line. Colonel Chamberlain's conduct in the memorable defense of Little Round Top (a position which with admirable judgment had been seized by General Warren) was recognized by the Government in the bestowal of the Medal of Honor for "conspicuous personal gallantry and distinguished service." 

After Gettysburg, Colonel Chamberlain was placed in command of the "Light Brigade," which he handled with marked skill in the action at Rappahannock Station. The wounds received in that battle made necessary retirement for a time to the Georgetown Hospital, but during his convalescence he gave valuable service as member of a Court-Martial. He returned to the front in May, 1864, when General Warren, at that time in command of the Fifth Corps then stationed at Spotsylvania, made Colonel Chamberlain the commander of a "forlorn hope" of nine regiments which had been selected to make a night assault on the enemy's works. The position was gained, but Chamberlain found his line outflanked, and was compelled to withdraw under heavy fire. Shortly after the action at Cold Harbor, while still holding the rank of Colonel, he was placed in charge of six regiments, consolidated as a veteran brigade. With this brigade, he made a charge on the enemy's main works at Petersburg, as a result of which action he was promoted on the field by General Grant to the rank of Brigadier-General "for gallant conduct in leading his brigade against the superior force of the enemy and for meritorious service" throughout the campaign. Such promotion on the field was most exceptional, and there is possibly no other instance during the war. In this charge General Chamberlain was seriously wounded, and his death was in fact announced. His life was saved through the activity of his brother Thomas, late Colonel of the Twentieth Maine, and the skill and tireless fidelity of the regimental surgeon Dr. Shaw. 

During the last campaign of the war, General Chamberlain, with two brigades, led the advance of the infantry with Sheridan, and in the fight on the Quaker Road he was twice wounded and his horse was shot under him. For his "conspicuous gallantry" in this action, he was promoted to the brevet rank of Major-General. In the fight at White Oak Road, March 31st, although seriously disabled by wounds. General Chamberlain distinguished himself by recovering a lost field; while in the battle of Five Forks, of April 1st, his promptitude and skillful handling of troops received again official commendation. In the final action near Appomattox Court House on the ninth of April, Chamberlain was called by General Sheridan to replace the leading division of cavalry, and the first flag of truce from Longstreet came to Chamberlain's headquarters. His Corps Commander says in an official report: "In the final action. General Chamberlain had the advance, and at the time the announcement of the surrender was made he was driving the enemy rapidly before him." 

At the surrender of Lee's army. General Chamberlain was designated to command the parade, and it was characteristic of his refined nature that he received the surrendering army with a salute of honor. At the final grand review in Washington, Chamberlain's division was placed at the head of the column of the Army of the Potomac. The General was mustered out of military service on the sixteenth of January, 1866, having declined the offer of a Colonelcy in the regular army. In his service of three-and-a-half years, he had participated in twenty hard-fought battles and a long series of minor engagements, and he had been struck six times by bullet and shell.”

From: The passing of the armies: an account of the final campaign of the Army of the Potomac, based upon personal reminiscences of the Fifth army corps, published in 1915
https://archive.org/details/passingofarmiesa00cham/page/n12/mode/1up
Source says not in copyright 

Image: Gen. Joshua L. Chamberlain via Wikimedia Commons, public domain
"Among her effects there was found on a torn bit of paper this paragraph:

"If I am entitled to the name of 'Spy' because I was in the Secret Service, I accept it willingly, but it will hereafter have to my mind a high and honorable significance. For my loyalty to my country, I have two beautiful names; here I am called 'Traitor,' farther North a 'Spy’ instead of the honored name of Faithful."

- Elizabeth Van Lew 

Elizabeth Van Lew of Richmond, Virginia risked her life numerous times to assist Union prisoners held at the Confederate Libby Prison during the Civil War.

Excerpt from: Ten American girls from history
by Kate Dickinson Sweetser, published in 1917
https://archive.org/details/tenamericangirls00swee/page/123/mode/1up

Image via Wikimedia Commons, public domain
Ambulance train during the Civil War

via NYPL Digital Collections, public domain
Union Soldiers seated on a cliff at Lookout Mountain.

via Wikimedia Commons, public domain
A 17,000 pound sea-coast mortar in the Union arsenal 

c. early 1860s

via Wikimedia Commons, public domain
Union Cavalry Soldier with Pistol in Holster

c. 1861-1865

via Wikimedia Commons, public domain
"After a summer at the springs he resumed his duties at the college with somewhat of his old ardor; but on September 28 he had to preside at a vestry meeting in a damp, cold church and to go home late through the rain. With characteristic generosity he had promised to make up a deficit in the clergyman’s salary; and with equally characteristic piety he stood that evening at his tea 
table to say grace, when suddenly his voice failed him and he sank into a chair. For several days he lingered and almost seemed to improve; but on October 10 he grew worse, and at nine o’clock on the morning of the 12th he died.”

On October 12th, 1870 Robert E. Lee died in Lexington, Virginia. 

From: Robert E. Lee by William Peterfield Trent, published in 1907. Source says not in copyright 

Image: Gen. Robert E. Lee, C.S.A. c. 1860s via Library of Congress, no known restrictions
Unidentified Signal Sergeant with the Wisconsin War Eagle - Old Abe (Union)

God Bless America🇺🇸

- 1876

via Wikimedia Commons, public domain
"Unidentified Civil War nurse who worked at Seminary Hospital, Washington, D.C. and hospitals at Annapolis and Point Lookout, Maryland”

c. 1861-1865

via Library of Congress, no known restrictions
Charleston Harbor, South Carolina. View from parapet (east angle) of Fort Sumter facing Morris Island

https://heartfelthistory.com/american-civil-war/

- 1865

via Library of Congress, no known restrictions
The frock coat that General Robert E. Lee wore at Appomattox Court House during his surrender.

Image by Farrargirl via Wikimedia Commons, CC BY-SA 4.0
Unidentified soldier in Union captain's uniform with revolver in breast pocket

c. 1860s

via Wikimedia Commons, public domain
Nashville, Tennessee -  Fortified railroad bridge across Cumberland River.

Child sitting on a horse in the foreground 

c. 1864 

via Library of Congress, no known restrictions
Soldiers of the 79th New York at camp

c. 1861-1865

via Library of Congress, no known restrictions 
https://www.loc.gov/pictures/item/2010647705/
Group of men and women at the Mississippi Valley Sanitary Fair which was held in St. Louis, Missouri in 1864

The fair was a fundraising event for monies to help those who were wounded and for improved sanitation during the Civil War. 

via Wikimedia Commons, public domain
Savage Station, Virginia 

- June 27th, 1862

via Library of Congress, no known restrictions 
https://www.loc.gov/pictures/resource/stereo.1s02501/
Nashville, Tenn. Federal outer line

- 1864 

via Wikimedia Commons, public domain
"That will find space on history's page. 
To record the deeds that here were done 
By this nation's heroic sons. 
And while the cannon loudly sound 
General Reynolds comes on the ground, 
And with eagle eye took in at glance 
The whole of country's wide expanse, 
And saw at once with Federal might, 
Here was the place to make the fight. 
And with a courrier's hasty speed 
Sent back the word to General Meade. 
Then did Reynolds order forward 
Valiant troop with General Howard. 
Scarcely had they reached the field 
When General Reynolds was seen to reel. 
The blood was streaming from his head, 
He fell from horse and soon was dead. 
Oh, cruel war! No one can tell 
How soldiers wept when Reynolds fell. 
The men who that day's battle bore, 
Was from the First and Eleventh Corps. 
All day they fought with might and main 
On these two corps was fearful drain. 
When by a charge the foe attacks, 
As many times were driven back. 
But truly we must count the cost 
As many men were each time lost. 
And now the day is nearly done. 
And Federals outnumbered four to one. 
And when that force comes on the field 
The Union troops do backward reel. 
When on the hill above the town 
They make their stand and hold their ground. 
Thus ended there that first day's fight 
When evening's shade brought on the night. 
Oh, must I tell the fearful cost, 
Nine thousand men that day were lost. 
One thousand dead on ground there laid. 
The others wounded or prisoners made. 
And when our troops that day did yield 
The enemy camps upon the field. 
And through the night our traitorious foes 
Stripped the dead of all their clothes, 
Causing that name which is "unknown", 
To be carved upon that marble stone 
That marks the grave where yet they sleep, 
And our nation great will vigil keep. 
So soldier sleep, take sweet repose 
For morrow's deeds no one yet knows. 
And as this army sorely bleeds. 
Comes Hancock on his foaming steed, 
And looks around all o'er the land 
Then says, "that here we'll make our stand". 
So back he goes on fleetest steed 
Reports the same to General Meade.”

From: The Battle of Gettysburg; a poem
by Stephen B. Day, published in 1914
https://archive.org/details/battleofgettysbu00days/page/9/mode/1up
Source: No known restrictions 

The Battle of Gettysburg began on Wednesday, July 1st, 1863

Image: Statue of General John F. Reynolds at Gettysburg Battlefield via Wikimedia Commons, public domain
Gens. Sickles, Carr & Graham. Taken near Trostle's barn, Gettysburg Battlefield - on spot where General Sickles lost his leg, July 2nd, 1863

- Photo taken in 1886

via Library of Congress,  no known restrictions 
https://www.loc.gov/pictures/item/2004673094/
Civil War Veterans of the 150th volunteer infantry regiment of New York State at the dedication of their monument at Gettysburg

c. 1907

via Wikimedia Commons, public domain
"Washington, D.C. Two Wiard guns at the Arsenal; Gen. Daniel E. Sickles by the left-hand one”

- 1862

via Wikimedia Commons, public domain
Unidentified soldier in Union cavalry uniform with stocked Colt pistol, Remington, and cavalry saber

c. 1861-1865

via Wikimedia Commons, no known restrictions
The battle tested turret of the USS Passaic in 1863
You can see the damage (holes and dents) from Confederate fire 

via Wikimedia Commons, public domain
Arthur H. Gale, Union Drummer Boy 

- 1864

From Missouri History Museum via Wikimedia Commons, public domain
On July 16th, 1862 U.S. Congress authorized the new rank of rear admiral for up to 9 officers in the U.S. Navy. 

David Glasgow Farragut was promoted as the first rear admiral.

According to the same Act of Congress that was approved on that same day July 16th, 1862, upon retirement admirals were to receive a pay of $2,000 per year.

A few years later Farragut was promoted to Vice Admiral and later became Admiral. 

Image: Rear Admiral David G. Farragut, c. 1863 via Wikimedia Commons, public domain
"Little Corporal - a dog that has been with Co. A, 22 Ohio since July 1861"

Image via Library of Congress, no known restrictions 
https://www.loc.gov/pictures/item/2016652231/
Gen. George Thomas and a group of officers at a council of war near Ringgold, Georgia in 1864

General George Thomas who chose to side with the Union and went on to achieve key victories during the American Civil War was born on July 31st, 1816 in Newsom's Depot, Virginia.

Image via Wikimedia Commons, public domain
Federal Artillery Battery, Baton Rouge, Louisiana

- 1862

by Andrew David Lytle via Wikimedia Commons, public domain
Allan Pinkerton, chief of McClellan's secret service, with his men near Cumberland Landing, Virginia in 1862. Pinkerton can be seen seated away from the men at the table toward the house wearing a hat and smoking his pipe. 

Allan Pinkerton was born on August 25th, 1819.

Image via Wikimedia Commons, public domain 
https://archive.org/stream/photographichist08mill/photographichist08mill#page/269/mode/1up
Alexandria, November 13, 1861. 

“Dear Sister : My views are not changed; I am 
opposed to Southern slavery in every form, viewed 
in any light — political, social, or moral. I have taken an oath "to bear true allegiance to the United States," and I hope to observe that oath. Slavery is the cause of the rebellion, and I believe it is God's providence that it shall be overthrown. It will be the consequence, not the effect, of the war. After the war is ended there will be a great influx of Northern men into the Southern States; their views will gradually triumph and slavery must yield. The rebels wish to establish a monarchy, and are fighting for that object. We are fighting for the Government, and against that object.”

From: The life and letters of Emory Upton, Colonel of the Fourth Regiment of Artillery, and Brevet Major-General, U.S. Army by Peter Smith Michie, published in 1885
https://archive.org/details/lifelettersofemo00mich/page/57/mode/1up
Source says not in copyright 

Union Army General Emory Upton was born on August 27th, 1839 near Batavia, New York.

Image via Wikimedia Commons, public domain
A thrilling scene in East Tennessee--Colonel Fry and the Union men swearing by the flag.

- 1862

via NYPL Digital Collections, no known restrictions
Colonel James H. Childs standing in the center of this photograph was killed at The Battle of Antietam in 1862.

Image via Wikimedia Commons, public domain
"Brigadier General Strong Vincent of Co. A, Erie Pennsylvania Infantry Regiment and 83rd Pennsylvania Infantry Regiment in uniform”

Strong Vincent was born on June 17th, 1837 in 
Waterford, Pennsylvania. During the Battle of Gettysburg he was wounded on Little Round Top and passed away just days later.
Vincent was only 26 and he left behind a young wife, Elizabeth H. Carter Vincent, who was expecting their first child.
Tragically the baby, Blanche, passed away in 1864 before reaching her first birthday and was buried next to her father. In 1914 (50 years later) Elizabeth, the wife of Strong Vincent and mother of baby Blanche was laid to rest next to her family in Erie, PA.

Image via Library of Congress, no known restrictions 
https://www.loc.gov/pictures/item/2016651683/
"Colonel Chamberlain's conduct in the memorable defense of Little Round Top (a position which with admirable judgment had been seized by General Warren) was recognized by the Government in the bestowal of the Congressional Medal of Honor for "conspicuous personal gallantry and distinguished service." 

After Gettysburg, Colonel Chamberlain was placed in command of the "Light Brigade," which he handled with marked skill in the action at Rappahannock Station. The wounds received in that battle made necessary retirement for a time to the Georgetown Hospital, but during his convalesence he gave valuable service as member of a Court-Martial. He returned to the front in May, 1864, when General Warren, at that time in command of the Fifth Corps then stationed at Spottsylvania, made Colonel Chamberlain the commander of a "forlorn hope" of nine regiments which had been selected to make a night assault on the enemy's works. The position was gained, but Chamberlain found his line outflanked, and was compelled to withdraw under heavy fire. Shortly after the action at Cold Harbor, while still holding the rank of Colonel, he was placed in charge of six regiments, consolidated as a veteran brigade. With this brigade, he made a charge on the enemy's main works at Petersburg, as a result of which action he was promoted on the field by General Grant to the rank of Brigadier-General "for gallant conduct in leading his brigade against the superior force of the enemy and for meritorious service" throughout the campaign. Such promotion on the field was most exceptional, and there is possibly no other instance during the war. In this charge (on June 18th, 1864) General Chamberlain was seriously wounded, and his death was in fact announced. His life was saved through the activity of his brother Thomas, late Colonel of the Twentieth Maine, and the skill and tireless fidelity of the regimental surgeon. Dr. Shaw. 

During the last campaign of the war, General Chamberlain, with two brigades, led the advance of the infantry with Sheridan, and in the fight on the Quaker Road he was twice wounded and his horse was shot under him. For his "conspicuous gallantry" in this action, he was promoted to the brevet rank of Major-General.”

From: The passing of the armies: an account of the final campaign of the Army of the Potomac, based upon personal reminiscences of the Fifth army corps, published in 1915 
https://archive.org/details/passingofarmiesa00cham/page/n14/mode/1up
Source says not in copyright 

Image: General Joshua L. Chamberlain via Wikimedia Commons, public domain
Unidentified soldier in Union Hardee hat with engineer's insignia 

- early 1860s

via Wikimedia Commons, public domain
Jacob Parrott was the first American to receive The Medal of Honor in March of 1863.  

Jacob was the first among six members of the Union Army who received the newly established award for their distinguished service in the Great Locomotive Chase during the American Civil War.

On today’s date, July 12th, 1862 the use of the Medal of Honor for soldiers who "distinguished themselves by their gallantry in action” in The U.S. Army was approved by Congress.

Image via Wikimedia Commons, public domain
"Unidentified young soldier in Union uniform and cap and cartridge box with bayoneted musket, bayonet and scabbard, and sword”

c. 1861-1865

via Wikimedia Commons, public domain
Old Abe war eagle of the 8th Wisconsin Infantry during The American Civil War

Image via Wikimedia Commons, public domain
Admiral Dahlgren and staff on board the U.S.S. Pawnee, off Charleston, S.C 

c. 1865

via Wikimedia Commons, public domain
“...while Colonel Lee returned to Washington, and 
from Arlington he once more proceeded to his command in Texas. Here, in garrison at San Antonio, Lee spent his last year of service under the United States flag, for on February 13, 1861, when Texas had withdrawn from the Union, he delivered over his authority at Fort Mason and repaired to the national capital, at the summons of the Secretary of War. 

On his return to Washington, Lee was confronted with an embarrassing and painful situation. Not only had seven of the States of the South passed ordinances of secession and seized United States forts within their State jurisdictions, but his own loved commonwealth of Virginia was on the brink of withdrawing from the Union. This action was followed ere long by other States, while the Southern Confederacy was formally inaugurated if we may not say legalized by the installation of Jefferson Davis as its president. As president of the Union Government, Abraham Lincoln was installed in office, and presently made his call for 75,000 troops to suppress insurrectionary violence and oppose the secession of the slave-holding States. The period was obviously one of intense excitement, for coercion on the part of the United States government over the disaffected States that had arrayed themselves against Federal authority and taken themselves out of the Union, was an unusual, as it was an extreme, course, and naturally affected the attitude of most of the Southern officers who were then serving in the Union army. To Colonel Lee, the struggle between his sense of duty and attachment to his native State, in conflict with loyalty in his own breast to the country he had so long and faithfully served, was a distressing and painful one. Especially was it this when he realized what coercion meant, and that coercion would be the penalty to be paid by his own State of Virginia when, as presently happened, she joined the sisterhood of States embraced in the Southern Confederacy. Against his own State he could not, of course, draw his sword, still less could he stand idly by when she was menaced and attacked by the Federal power as a commonwealth in revolt from Union authority. In his mind there was nothing of sectional enmity or hatred, only love for his native State, and sorrow over the dire conditions that had arisen to compel her to withdraw from the North and join her forces with those of the Confederacy. 

Into the vortex of war the two sections of the Republic soon now drifted, and with Lincoln's call for troops and the War Department's preparations to invade the South, Colonel Lee's mental struggle as to what he should do came to an end. His devotion to the Union had hitherto delayed his action and made infirm his will; while it brought him overtures from the authorities to take command of the proposed army of invasion, which, of course, was repugnant to him, and, in declining, he at the same time handed in his resignation as an officer of the United States army. His period of sore trial was, happily, now soon over, though it cost him much to quit the service with which he had been so long and honorably connected and separate himself from his old comrades in the Union army and his friends and associates in the North. To General Winfield Scott, who loved him as a son and pleaded with him against resigning, he wrote a kindly letter of regret at parting with him, while acknowledging his appreciation of a long and cordial friendship. His resignation was accepted April 20th (1861), and three days later the Legislature of Virginia authorized the Governor of the State to offer Lee command of the military forces of the State, with the rank of Major-General.  This changed the course of his career, and for the future identified himself with the cause of the South, in which he played so conspicuous and strenuous a part, shedding glory upon its arms, despite the final issue of the long and bloody conflict. Taking leave once more of Arlington and its loved inmates, Lee repaired to Richmond, Va., and to his new duties as commander-in-chief of the army of Virginia.”

From: The life of General Robert E. Lee
by Adam, G. Mercer published in 1905
https://archive.org/details/lifeofgeneralrob00adamiala/page/56
Source says not in copyright 

Image: General Robert E. Lee via Library of Congress, no known restrictions 
http://www.loc.gov/pictures/item/2018669117/
"Yorktown, Va., vicinity. Duc de Chartres, Comte de Paris, Prince de Joinville, and friends playing dominoes at a mess table, Camp Winfield Scott”

- 1862 

via Wikimedia Commons, public domain
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