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"Every form of suffering came at once that winter, 
in that section of Tennessee. While the inclement 
weather was at its worst, the men were suffering 
from short rations, consequent on their distance from the base of supplies, and the lack of railroad communication. They were in the enemy's country, which had been stripped and peeled for the sustenance of their own troops. It was impossible to keep the large army in that vicinity fully supplied, until the railroad from Nashville was completed and that was being pushed forward with all possible despatch. Whole brigades were called out to receive as their daily rations three ears of corn to a man, while the horses and mules were served more generously. For the famished beasts had not the spirit of the American soldiers to keep them alive, whether well fed or not. And yet so wild with hunger were many of the men, that a guard stood over the animals while they were feeding, to protect them from the pilfering of the soldiers and this did not always restrain them.”

From: My story of the war: a woman's narrative of four years personal experience as a nurse in the Union Army, and in relief work at home, in hospitals, camps, and at the front, during the War of the Rebellion by Mary Livermore

Mary Livermore was born on December 19th, 1820 in Boston, Massachusetts.

Image of Mary Livermore c. 1902 via Wikimedia Commons, public domain
Hattie Caraway in 1914 

The first woman elected to U.S. Senate

She took office on December 9th, 1931

via Wikimedia Commons, public domain
A photo of Clara Barton from 1906

After the American Civil War, Clara received decorations from European nations for her assistance and management of relief efforts during the Franco-Prussian War in the early 1870s.

Image via Wikimedia Commons, public domain
Daguerreotype of American women’s rights activist Susan B. Anthony at the age of 28

On February 15th, 1820 Susan B. Anthony was born in Adams, Massachusetts.

Quote: "The older I get, the greater power I seem to have to help the world.”

Image via Wikimedia Commons, public domain
A portrait of Lady Randolph Churchill the mother of Winston Churchill.

Jennie Jerome was born in Brooklyn, New York about 7 years before the American Civil War. 

Image via Wikimedia Commons, public domain
"In attempting to describe the life and times of the early mill-girls, it has seemed best for me to write my story in the first person; not so much because my own experience is of importance, as that it is, in some respects, typical of that of many others who lived and worked with me. 

Our home was in Boston, in Leverett Court, now Cotting Street, where I was born the year the corner-stone was laid for the Bunker Hill Monument, as my mother told me always to remember. We lived there until I was nearly seven years of age, and, although so young, I can remember very vividly scenes and incidents which took place at that time. We lived under the shadow of the old jail (near where Wall Street now runs), and we children used to hear conversation, not meant for small ears, between the prisoners and the persons in the court who came there to see them. 

All the land on which the North Union Station now stands, with the railway lines connected with it, and also the site of many of the streets, particularly Lowell Street, was then a part of the Mill-pond, or was reclaimed from the Bay. The tide came in at the foot of Leverett Court, and we could look across the water and see the sailing vessels coming and going. There the down-east wood coasters landed their freight; many a time I have gone "chipping" there, and once a generous young skipper offered me a stick of wood, which I did not dare to take. In 1831, under the shadow of a great sorrow, which had made her four children fatherless, — the oldest but seven years of age, — my mother was left to struggle alone; and, although she tried hard to earn bread enough to fill our hungry mouths, she could not do it, even with the help of kind friends. And so it happened that one of her more wealthy neighbors, who had looked with longing eyes on the one little daughter of the family, offered to adopt me. But my mother, who had had a hard experience in her youth in living amongst strangers, said, "No; while I have one meal of victuals a day, I will not part with my children." I always remembered this speech because of the word "victuals," and I wondered for a long time what this good old Bible word meant. 

My father was a carpenter, and some of his fellow-workmen helped my mother to open a little shop, where she sold small stores, candy, kindling-wood, and so on, but there was no great income from this, and we soon became poorer than ever. Dear me! I can see the small shop now, with its jars of striped candy, its loaves of bread, the room at the back where we all lived, and my oldest brother (now a 
"D.D.") sawing the kindling-wood which we sold to the neighbors. 

That was a hard, cold winter; and for warmth's sake my mother and her four children all slept in one bed, two at the foot and three at the head, — but her richer neighbor could not get the little daughter; and, contrary to all the modern notions about hygiene, we were a healthful and a robust brood. We all, except the baby, went to school every day, and Saturday afternoons I went to a charity school to learn to sew. My mother had never complained of her poverty in our hearing, and I had accepted the conditions of my life with a child's trust, knowing nothing of the relative difference between poverty and riches. And so I went to the sewing-school, like any other little girl who was taking lessons in sewing and not as a "charity child ; "until a certain day when something was said by one of the teachers, about me, as a "poor little girl," — a thoughtless remark, no doubt, such as may be said to-day in "charity schools." When I went home I told my mother that the teacher said I was poor, and she replied in her sententious manner, "You need not go there again." 

Shortly after this my mother's widowed sister, Mrs. Angeline Cudworth, who kept a factory boarding-house in Lowell, advised her to come to that city. She secured a house for her, and my mother, with her little brood and her few household belongings, started for the new factory town. 

We went by the canal-boat. The Governor Sullivan, and a long and tiresome day it was to the weary mother and her four active children though the children often varied the scene by walking on the tow-path under the Lombardy poplars, riding on tlie gates when the locks were swung open, or buying glasses of water at the stopping-places along the route. 

When we reached Lowell, we were carried at once to my aunt's house, whose generous spirit had well provided for her hungry relations; and we children were led into her kitchen, where, on the longest and whitest of tables, lay, oh, so many loaves of bread! 

After our feast of loaves we walked with our mother to the Tremont Corporation, where we were to live, and at the old No. 5 (which imprint is still legible over the door), in the first block of tenements then built, I began my life among factory people. My mother kept forty boarders, most of them men, mill-hands, and she did all her housework, with what help her children could give her between schools; for we all, even the baby three years old, were kept at school. My part in the housework was to wash the dishes, and I was obliged to stand on a cricket in order to reach the sink! 

My mother's boarders were many of them young men, and usually farmers' sons. They were almost invariably of good character and behavior, and it was a continual pleasure for me and my brothers to associate with them. I was treated like a little sister, never hearing a word or seeing a look to remind me that I was not of the same sex as my brothers. I played checkers with them, sometimes " beating, "and took part in their conversation, and it never came into my mind that they were not the same as so many "girls." A good object-lesson for one who was in the future to maintain, by voice and pen, her belief in the equality of the sexes! I had been to school constantly until I was about ten years of age, when my mother, feeling obliged to have help in her work besides what I could give, and also needing the money which I could earn, allowed me, at my urgent request (for I wanted to earn money like the other little girls), to go to work in the mill. I worked first in the spinning-room as a "doffer." The doffers were the very youngest girls, whose work was to doff, or take off, the full bobbins, and replace them with the empty ones. 

I can see myself now, racing down the alley, between the spinning-frames, carrying in front of me a bobbin-box bigger than I was. These mites had to be very swift in their movements, so as not to keep the spinning-frames stopped long, and they worked only about fifteen minutes in every hour. The rest of the time was their own, and when the overseer was kind they were allowed to read, knit, or even to go outside the mill-yard to play. 

Some of us learned to embroider in crewels, and I still have a lamb worked on cloth, a relic of those early days, when I was first taught to improve my time in the good old New England fashion. When not doffing, we were often allowed to go home, for a time, and thus we were able to help our mothers in their housework. 

We were paid two dollars a week; and how proud I was when my turn came to stand up on the bobbin-box, and write my name in the paymaster's book, and how indignant I was when he asked me if I could "write." "Of course I can," said I, and he smiled as lie looked down on me. 

The working-hours of all the girls extended from five o'clock in the morning until seven in the evening, with one-half hour for breakfast and for dinner. Even the doffers were forced to be on duty nearly fourteen hours a day, and this was the greatest hardship in the lives of these children. For it was not until 1842 that the hours of labor for children under twelve years of age were limited to ten per day; but the "ten-hour law " itself was not passed until long after some of these little doffers were old enough to appear before the legislative committee on the subject, and plead, by their presence, for a reduction of the hours of labor. 

I do not recall any particular hardship connected with this life, except getting up so early in the morning, and to this habit, I never was, and never shall be, reconciled, for it has taken nearly a lifetime for me to make up the sleep lost at that early age. But in every other respect it was a pleasant life. We were not hurried any more than was for our good, and no more work was required of us than we were able easily to do.”

From: Loom and spindle: or, life among the early mill girls; with a sketch of "The Lowell Offering" and some of its contributors
by Harriet Jane Hanson Robinson, published in 1898
Source says not in copyright
Esther Morris became the first female to hold a judicial office in America when she became justice of the peace of South Pass, Wyoming in February 1870 

Image via Wikimedia Commons, public domain
Sarah Bush Johnston Lincoln, the stepmother of Abraham Lincoln 

Image via Wikimedia Commons, public domain
17 Madison Street in Rochester, New York
The home of Susan B. Anthony 

On November 18th, 1872 Susan B. Anthony was arrested at her home for casting her ballot in the Presidential election that year. Fourteen other women who voted were also arrested that day.

Image from 1967 via Wikimedia Commons, public domain.
Dwight D. Eisenhower presenting Jackie Cochran and Chuck Yeager with Harmon Trophies 

c. 1953

via Wikimedia Commons, public domain
A sketch of Martha Jefferson Randolph who was the eldest daughter of Thomas Jefferson and his wife, Martha. 

Martha Jefferson Randolph studied in Europe, spoke a number of languages and had 13 children. 

Image via Wikimedia Commons, public domain
Alene Duerk, the first female to become an admiral in the United States Navy 

Image of Alene Duerk when she was a nurse educator at the Naval Hospital in Philadelphia c. 1957 via Wikimedia Commons, public domain
A photo of Virginia O’Hanlon from 1895

On September 21st, 1897 Francis P. Church responded affirmatively to Virginia’s question "Is There a Santa Claus?” when his famous editorial was published on today’s date 123 years ago...

Image via Wikimedia Commons, public domain
Mary Custis Lee who was the wife of General Robert E. Lee and the great-granddaughter of Martha Washington 

via Wikimedia Commons, public domain
On September 14th, 1975 Elizabeth Ann Seton became the first native born American to be canonized a saint by the Catholic Church.

Image: Elizabeth Ann Bayley Seton in 1797 via Wikimedia Commons, public domain
A portrait of Nellie Grant, the daughter of Ulysses S. Grant which was taken before she was 26 years old.

Nellie was born on Independence Day - July 4th, 1855.

Image via Wikimedia Commons, public domain
On September 6th, 1870 Wyoming resident Louisa Swain, during the general election, became the first woman to legally vote in The United States.

Image via Wikimedia Commons, public domain
Childhood portrait of Amelia Earhart - circa 1901

Public Domain via Wikimedia Commons
On today's date July 27th, 1853: American humanitarian Elizabeth Anne Plankinton "Miss Lizzie" was born in Milwaukee, Wisconsin.

In her lifetime, Elizabeth funded the building of a YWCA hotel ( which offered affordable housing to working women in Milwaukee. In 1885, she donated a bronze statue of George Washington (considered to be Milwaukee's first piece of public art)

Source: Wikipedia 

Photo: Elizabeth Anne Plankinton c. 1891 by Unknown • Public domain via Wikimedia Commons
🇺🇸365 Reasons To Cherish America!🇺🇸

Day/Reason #188: Mother Frances Xavier Cabrini who became the first American Citizen to be canonized a saint in the Roman Catholic Church on today's date July 7th, 1946.
Frances Benjamin Johnston's Self-Portrait (as "New Woman"), a full-length self-portrait of her seated in front of fireplace, facing left, holding cigarette in one hand and a beer stein in the other, in her Washington, D.C. studio


Frances Benjamin Johnston [Public domain], 

Description and photo via Wikimedia Commons
On today's date October 24th, 1901:
Annie Edson Taylor, on her 63rd birthday, became the first person to hurl down Niagara Falls in a wooden barrel. 

After her trip she said:
"If it was with my dying breath, I would caution anyone against attempting the feat…. I would sooner walk up to the mouth of a cannon, knowing it was going to blow me to pieces than make another trip over."

Source: Wikimedia
Photo: The Queen of the Mist" posing with her barrel and cat.
GG Bain News Service • Public domain
On today's date August 26th, 1873:
The first public kindergarten in the United States was commissioned by the school board of St. Louis, MO.
The school officially opened later that September and was started by Susan Elizabeth Blow.

Photo of Susan Blow "Mother of Kindergarten" 
Public Domain in the United States
Photo of Mary Bonnin during a training exercise in Panama City, Florida in 1980

Mary was the first female Master Diver in The United States Navy 

Image by Mdb8900 via Wikimedia Commons, CC BY-SA 4.0
“Dorothea Dix has been called "the most useful 
and distinguished woman America has yet produced." Let us follow the events of her life and decide for ourselves whether this statement is true. 

Dorothea Lynde Dix was born April 4, 1802, at 
Hampden, Maine. Her father, Joseph Dix, was a 
man of unstable character and of a most singular 
mental make-up. In fact, he was regarded as almost insane on religious questions. He wandered about from place to place writing and publishing tracts, spending in this way the little money he had, without regard to the needs of his family. His wife and children were required to assist in the stitching and pasting of the tracts, a tiresome work which brought them no return. 

At twelve years of age Dorothea rebelled against 
this labor. She wished to attend school, but there 
was little chance for her to study while she lived with her father. So she ran away from Worcester, where the family then lived, and went to Boston, the home of her grandmother, Mrs. Dorothea Lynde Dix. 

Mrs. Dix received the girl as kindly as her nature 
would permit. But she was a stern woman, with 
very strict ideas of training children, and every piece of work done for her had to be perfectly performed or severe punishment followed. 

Once, when little Dorothea had failed to accomplish a task as well as her grandmother thought she should, she was compelled to spend a whole week alone without speaking to anyone. This sounds cruel, but Dorothea's grandmother wished to make the child careful and painstaking. 

Poor little Dorothea! She said in after years that 
she "never knew childhood." But she submitted 
to her grandmother's sternness rather than return to her father and the wandering, useless life he led. 
She had always in mind the day when she would be 
able to support herself and help her younger brothers. So she studied diligently, and being clever, made great progress. When she was fourteen, she returned to Worcester, where she opened a small school for young children. In order to look old enough for a teacher, she lengthened the skirts of her dresses and arranged her hair grown-woman fashion. 

The school succeeded, for Dorothea, though always kind and gentle, was a strict disciplinarian. The year following, she returned to Boston and studied to fit herself for more advanced work in teaching. In 1821, when she was nineteen years of age, she opened a day and boarding school in that city, in a house belonging to her grandmother. Here she received pupils from the best families in Boston and the neighboring towns, and was able to send for her brothers and educate them, while supporting herself. Dorothea's sympathies, meanwhile, were drawn to the poor children about her, who had no means of obtaining an education because their parents could not afford to pay the tuition. She put the matter before her austere grandmother, and begged for the use of a loft over the stable for a school room for these children. The little "barn school" was the beginning of a movement that grew, and later resulted in the Warren Street Chapel. 

You may imagine how happy Dorothea Dix was, 
now, — to be self-supporting and to be helping others to become so! She managed the two schools, had the care of her two brothers, and took entire charge of her grandmother's home. For Mrs. Dix had learned to admire and trust the granddaughter whom she had once found so careless. 

This amount of work would completely fill the 
lives of most people, yet Dorothea found time to 
prepare a text-book upon Common Things. Sixty 
editions of the book were printed and sold. It was 
followed by two others: Hymns for Children and 
Evening Hours. 

In order to do all this work, she arose early and sat 
up late into the night. Naturally her health failed 
under such a strain. After six years she gave up 
her schools, and took a position as governess in a 
family living at Portsmouth, Rhode Island. Here 
she lived much in the open air, and her great desire 
for universal knowledge led her to make a special 
study of botany and marine life. 

Her health failing again, she visited Philadelphia, 
and then went South as far as Alexandria, Virginia, 
writing short stories the while to support herself. 
The winter of 1830 she spent in the West Indies with the family of Dr. Channing. There she at last regained her health. 

The following spring. Miss Dix returned to Boston, 
and reopened her school in the old Dix homestead. 
Pupils flocked to her, and for five years the work 
flourished. Her influence over her pupils was wonderful. They thought her very beautiful, as indeed she was. Mrs. Livermore writes of her: "Miss 
Dix was slight and delicate in appearance. She 
must have been beautiful in her youth and was still 
very sweet looking, with a soft voice, graceful figure and winning manners." 

In 1836, ill health obliged her to close her school 
once more. This time she went to England. Though 
only thirty-four, she had saved enough money to 
enable her to live in comfort without labor. Shortly 
after, her grandmother died, leaving her enough to 
carry out the plans for helping others, which had 
become a part of her life. She then returned from 
England and made her home in Washington. 

In 1841, however, we find her again in Boston and 
at this time her real life-work began. It happened 
that a minister well known to Miss Dix had charge 
of a Sunday school in the East Cambridge jail. He 
needed a teacher to take charge of a class of twenty women, and asked Miss Dix if she could tell him of any suitable person. 

Miss Dix thought the matter over and then said, 
"I will take the class myself!" 

Her friends objected because of her frail health, 
but having once arrived at a decision, Dorothea Dix 
never changed her mind. As one of her pupils said, 
“Fixed as fate, we considered her! " 

The following Sunday, after the session was over, 
she went into the jail and talked with many of the 
prisoners. It seemed that they had many righteous 
grievances, one being that no heat of any kind was 
provided for their cells. 

When Miss Dix asked the keeper of the jail to heat 
the rooms, he replied that the prisoners did not 
need heat, and that besides, stoves would be unsafe. Though she begged him to do something to make the cells more comfortable, he refused. She then brought the case before the Court in East Cambridge. The Court granted her request and heat was furnished the prisoners. 

In the East Cambridge jail she saw many things 
too horrible to believe. The cells were dirty, the 
inmates crowded together in poorly ventilated quarters, the sane and insane often being placed in the same room. These conditions, and others too sad to mention, she made public through the newspapers and the pulpits. But she did not stop at this. Every jail and almshouse in Massachusetts was visited by her; she must see for herself how the unfortunate inmates were treated. For two years she traveled about, visiting these institutions and taking notes. Then she prepared her famous Memorial to the Legislature. 

In this Memorial Miss Dix said: "I proceed, 
gentlemen, briefly to call your attention to the present state of insane persons within this Commonwealth, in cages, closets, cellars, stalls, pens, chained and naked, beaten with rods and lashed into obedience." Proofs were offered for all facts stated. 

The Memorial was presented by Dr. S. G. Howe, 
husband of Julia Ward Howe. Dr. Howe was then 
a member of the Legislature. The conditions thus 
made public shocked the entire community, so that, after much discussion, a bill was passed enlarging the asylum at Worcester. A small beginning, yet the grand work of reform was started, and Miss Dix was grateful. 

She then turned her attention to other States, 
visiting the jails, almshouses, and insane asylums as far west as Illinois and as far south as Louisiana. 
In Rhode Island she found the insane shockingly 

At that time there lived in Providence a very rich 
man named Butler. He had never been known to 
give anything to help the unfortunate, bvit Miss Dix 
decided to appeal to him. People smiled when they 
heard that she intended to call upon Mr. Butler and 
ask him for money. 

During the call, he talked of everything except 
the subject nearest Miss Dix's heart, "talking against time," as they say, to prevent her from putting the vital question. At length she said in a quiet but forceful manner: 

''Mr. Butler, I wish you to hear ichat I hare to say. 
I bring before you certain facts involving terrible 
suffering to your fellow creatures, suffering you can 

She then told him what she had seen. 
Mr. Butler heard her story to the end without 
interruption. Then he said, 

"What do you want me to do?”

"I want you to give $50,000 to enlarge the insane 
hospital in this city! " 

"Madam, I'll do it!" was the reply. 

After three years of this sort of work. Miss Dix 
became an expert on the question of how an insane asylum should be built and managed. In New Jersey, she succeeded after much hard work in securing the passage of a bill establishing the New Jersey State Lunatic Asylum, and the money necessary to build it. This building was a model for the times. 

For twelve years she went up and down through 
the United States in the interests of the suffering 
insane, securing the enlargement of three asylums 
and the building of thirteen. 

In 1850, Miss Dix secured the passage of a bill giving twelve million acres of public lands for the benefit of the poor insane, the deaf and dumb, and the blind. Applause went up all over the country, yet, strange to say, after the passage of the bill by both Houses, President Franklin Pierce vetoed it! 

This was a severe blow to Miss Dix and she again 
went to Europe for a rest. But rest she could not. 
All the large European cities had abuses of this kind 
to be corrected, and she must work to help them. 

A most interesting story is told of her encounter "with Pope Pius IX. In vain had she tried to get 
authority in Rome to enable her to do something to 
improve the horrible Italian prisons. She had even 
tried, but vainly, to get audience with the Pope. One day she saw his carriage, stopped it, and addressed him, willy-nilly, in Latin, as she knew no Italian. Her enterprise appears to have impressed the Pope favorably, for he gave her everything she asked for. In her own country, again, she extended her labors to the Western States. Then the breaking out of the Civil War rendered such labors useless. 

But now there were the soldiers to help! Her 
active interest in them came about in the following 
way:  Shortly after April, 1861, she happened to be passing through Baltimore when the Sixth Regiment of Massachusetts, on its way to Washington, was stoned by a vast mob, several men being killed. At once Miss Dix knew what to do. She took the first train she could get for Washington, and reported at the War Department for free service in the hospitals, where through Secretary Simon Cameron, she immediately received the appointment as "Superintendent of Women Nurses." Here, truly, was an enormous piece of work for her. 

Among her duties were the selection and assignment of women nurses; the superintendence of the thousands of women already serving; the seeing that supplies were fairly distributed; and looking after the proper care of wounded soldiers. Her remarkable executive ability soon brought order and system out of confusion. It is said that she accepted no women who were under thirty years of age, and demanded that they be plain in dress and without beauty. Good health and good moral character were also, of course, requirements. 

Many of the surgeons and nurses disliked her. 
They said she was severe, that she would not listen 
to any advice nor take any suggestions. The real 
cause of her unpopularity, however, was that she demanded of all about her entire unselfishness and strict devotion to work. Very severe was she with careless nurses or rough surgeons. 

Two houses were rented by her to hold the supplies sent to her care, and still other houses were rented for convalescent soldiers or nurses who needed rest. She employed two secretaries, owned ambulances  and kept them busy, printed and distributed circulars, settled disputes in matters which concerned her nurses, took long journeys when necessary, and paid from her own private purse many expenses incurred. Everything she possessed — fortune, time, strength— she gave to her country in its time of need. 

During the four years of the War, Miss Dix never 
took a holiday. Often she had to be reminded of her 
meals, so interested was she in the work. At the 
close of the War, when the Hon. Edwin M. Stanton, 
then Secretary of War, asked her how the nation 
could best thank her for her services, she answered, “I would like a flag." 

Two beautiful flags were given to her with a suitable inscription. These flags she bequeathed to Harvard College, and they now hang over the doors of Memorial Hall. 

The War over. Miss Dix again took up her work 
for the insane and for fifteen years more devoted 
herself to their welfare. 

In 1881, at the age of seventy-nine, she retired to 
the hospital she had been the means of building at 
Trenton, New Jersey, and here she was tenderly 
cared for until her death in 1887.”

From: A group of famous women; stories of their lives by Edith Horton, published in 1914
Source says not in copyright 

Image: Daguerreotype of Dorothea Dix by Marcus Aurelius Root (photographer) via Wikimedia Commons, public domain
On January 11th, 1935 Amelia Earhart took off from Honolulu, Hawaii on her flight to Oakland, California.
She was the first person to accomplish this solo flight.

Image: Amelia after making her flight from Hawaii to California on January 12th, 1935 via Wikimedia Commons, public domain
Miss Beatrice Mary MacDonald, New York City. The first nurse to receive the Distinguished Service Cross. Decorated by Secretary Baker on Feb. 27th, 1919

Image via Library of Congress, no known restrictions
Sarah Livingston, the wife of Founding Father of the United States John Jay

Sarah and John had six children 

Image: Mrs. John Jay via NYPL Digital Collections, no known restrictions
Alice Roosevelt Longworth, daughter of President Theodore Roosevelt from his first marriage.

via Wikimedia Commons, public domain
Nellie Bly in her later years 

c. early 1920s

via Wikimedia Commons, public domain
Evangeline Lodge Land
The mother of Charles Lindbergh

c. 1899

via Wikimedia Commons, public domain
Annie Oakley

c. 1891

via Wikimedia Commons, public domain
“The most important day I remember in all my life is the one on which my teacher, Anne Mansfield Sullivan, came to me.”

- Helen Keller from her autobiography The Story of My Life, published in 1903

Image: Helen Keller and Anne Sullivan, three-quarter length portrait, seated in profile, 1893 via Library of Congress.
No known restrictions
Secretary of Labor Frances Perkins in 1938

On March 4th, 1933 Frances Perkins became the first woman to hold a Cabinet position in the Executive branch of U.S. Government 

Image via Wikimedia Commons, public domain
Parade for the American swimmer Gertrude Ederle coming up Broadway, New York City 

The parade was held after Gertrude became the first woman to swim across the English Channel which she accomplished on August 6th, 1926.

Image via Wikimedia Commons, public domain
On September 1st, 1878: Emma M. Nutt became the first female telephone operator in history. The Telephone Dispatch Company of Boston hired her and she would stay in the position for over 30 years. Within hours of Emma's start on the job her sister, Stella, joined her making them the first two sister telephone operators in the world.
On the morning of July 19th, 1848 Elizabeth Cady Stanton read her Declaration of Sentiments at the Seneca Falls Convention.

The document was premised on The Declaration of Independence and added “all women” to that famous line:  

"We hold these truths to be self-evident; that all men and women are created equal”

Image: Elizabeth Cady Stanton holding her daughter Harriot in 1856 via Wikimedia Commons, public domain
On today's date March 12th, 1912 Juliette Gordon Low organized the first Girl Guide troop meeting in America which took place in Savannah, Georgia. The group later became known as The Girl Scouts of America.

Image: Portrait of Juliette Gordon Low (1887) by Edward Hughes via Wikimedia Commons, public domain
A photograph of Woodrow Wilson’s mother 

Janet "Jessie” Woodrow Wilson was born in England but came to America at a young age. 

c. 1840s-1850s

via Wikimedia Commons, public domain
Martha Bulloch Roosevelt, the mother of President Theodore Roosevelt

via Wikimedia Commons, public domain
Photograph of Dorothy Ayer Gardner as a child

She was the mother of U.S. President Gerald Ford

via Wikimedia Commons, public domain
On May 20th, 1932 American pilot Amelia Earhart began her nonstop flight across the Atlantic Ocean and successfully landed in Northern Ireland after flying solo for nearly 15 hours. 

Image: Amelia in the 1930s, public domain
American author Helen Keller was born on June 27th, 1880 in Tuscumbia, Alabama.

Image: Helen Keller in 1904 via Wikimedia Commons, public domain
125 future Women’s Army Corps members take oath on United States Capitol steps

- 1943

via Wikimedia Commons, public domain
Mrs. Edsel B. Ford's (Eleanor Lowthian Clay’s) bridal party in 1916

Her husband, Edsel was the son of American automobile giant Henry Ford. 
In the late 1920s Edsel and Eleanor built a beautiful estate together. Sorrowfully the couple only lived in the home for about 14 years together until Edsel died at the age of 49. 
Eleanor lived the remaining (about 33) years of her life in that same home that she built with her husband which is now open to the public.

Image via NYPL no known restrictions
"Civilization is a method of living, an attitude of equal respect for all men”

- Jane Addams who was the first American woman to receive the Nobel Peace Prize 

Image: Jane Addams c. 1914 via Wikimedia Commons, public domain
Annie Edson Taylor with the help of others crosses a makeshift bridge after being pulled out of the barrel that plunged down Niagara Falls on her 63rd birthday.

- October 24th, 1901

Image via Wikimedia Commons, public domain
“Eleanor Roosevelt and and her daughter, Anna Roosevelt”

- 1906

via Wikimedia Commons, public domain
"World’s Fastest Typist” Birdie Reeve was known to type about two hundred words per minute using only four fingers (two fingers per hand.)

Image dated 3/19/1923
via Library of Congress, no known restrictions
A vintage birthday greeting card c. 1911

On March 27th, 1868 Patty Hill the woman who is believed to have co-written (with her sister) the popular tune "Happy Birthday To You” was born in Anchorage, Kentucky.

Image via NYPL Digital Collections, no known restrictions
Susanna M. Salter the first female to serve as Mayor (Argonia, Kansas) in the United States was elected in April 4th, 1887.

Image via Wikimedia Commons, public domain
Anne Sullivan was born on April 14th, 1866 in 
Feeding Hills, Agawam, Massachusetts.

She met Helen Keller when she was 21 and would spend nearly 5 decades (the rest of her life) with her.

Image via Alamy
On April 16th, 1912 American aviatrice Harriet Quimby became the first female to pilot over the English Channel.

Image via Wikimedia Commons, public domain
"There is a God, and he is good.”

- Astronomer Maria Mitchell who was the first American scientist to discover a comet 

Image via Wikimedia Commons, public domain
"Here and there through the fields were good apple-trees ; under one of these we would rest, and eat our luncheon of a biscuit and some fruit taken from the tree above us ; and then my father would take a book from his pocket, usually a classic in a French translation, from which he would read aloud for me to translate. 

There were plenty of ideas, even words, that I did not understand ; if it had been a description of the steam-engine, I should have gone through it with equal good-will and docility ; but much of it remained in my memory, and I grew into it. Hard words and hard ideas tired my mind as the long tramps and ploughed fields tired my young feet, but with time I grew used to both, and the benefit of both remained with me : these long sunny mornings in the open air were the most delightful phase in which my lessons came. In winter I had my corner at the library table. No matter how good our teachers were, my father had us always prepare our lessons with him. 

About a year after I was married, my father sent for me one morning, and pointing to my old place at the end of the library table, said, " I want you to resume your place there ; you are too young to fritter away your life without some useful pursuit." So back I went to my mornings of work and readings and translations, which brought with them the scraps of talk and connected interest on all subjects which can only exist where lives are passed together in that pleasant intimacy. 

As I have said, the long expeditions which Mr. Fremont made took him from home five years of the first eight after we were married, and I remained in many respects in my old place as one of the children of the family. My mother’s long illness deprived my father of her companionship to a great extent, and made him turn to me still more. 
How great a loss this was to him and to us can only be known to those who knew her ; but I do not speak of that life, for it is not, like mine, in a manner public property. For myself, so much good-will and warm feeling have been given me during the public portions of my life that it does not seem more intrusive to talk of myself to my unknown friends than to those I know personally.”

From: A year of American travel by Jesse Benton Frémont (the wife of American explorer John C. Frémont), published in 1878
Source says not in copyright 

Image: Jesse Benton Frémont via NYPL Digital Collections, no known restrictions
American track and field star Lucile Ellerbe Godbold, gold medalist in shot put at the 1922 Women’s World Games was born on May 31st, 1900 in Marion County, South Carolina.

Image via Wikimedia Commons, public domain
Carrie A. Nation in a jail cell c. 1901

On June 7th, 1899 Carrie A. Nation goes on the offensive and begins her radical temperance efforts when she used stones to destroy bottles of liquor at a saloon in Kansas  

Image via Wikimedia Commons, public domain
Rebecca Latimer Felton who was the first woman to serve in U.S. Senate (for a single day in 1922) was born on June 10th, 1835 in Decatur, Georgia.

Image via Wikimedia Commons, public domain
American scientist Barbara McClintock working in a laboratory in the late 1940s.

In the early 1980s she was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for her discoveries in how genetic material can change position. 

She was born on June 16th, 1902 in Hartford, Connecticut.

Image via Wikimedia Commons, public domain
Civil War Nurse Rebecca Lane Pennypacker Price cared for wounded soldiers following the Battle of Gettysburg in 1863

Photo from 1914

via Wikimedia Commons, public domain
Frances Cox Henderson, the wife of the first Governor of Texas, James Pinckney Henderson was born on July 21st, 1820 in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. 

Image of Frances via Wikimedia Commons, public domain
During her lifetime, Betsy Ross lived during the terms of the first seven Presidents of The United States: Washington, Adams, Jefferson, Madison, Monroe, Adams and a portion of Jackson’s presidency. 

She lived until 1836.

Drawing of Betsy Ross via NYPL Digital Collections, no known restrictions
Photo of Pittsburgh born architect Mary Colter creating a metal bowl in 1892.

Colter designed numerous structures in the Western U.S. including lodges and other buildings at the Grand Canyon. 

Image via Wikimedia Commons, public domain
Annie Oakley wearing pearl earrings

c. 1894

via Wikimedia Commons, public domain
On August 8th, 2007 Barbara Morgan and six others aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour were launched into space. 

More than two decades earlier in 1985, Barbara Morgan was selected as a backup to Christa McAuliffe for NASA’s Teacher in Space Project. 

Image via Wikimedia Commons, public domain
American phrenologist Charlotte Fowler Wells was born on August 14th, 1814 in Cohocton, New York.

She instructed the first academic lessons in phrenology in America. 

Image via Wikimedia Commons, public domain
Amelia Earhart turning the propeller of the plane that she purchased from Irish aviatrix Mary, Lady Heath in 1928

via Shutterstock
"Care and labor are as much correlated to human existence as shadow is to light...”

- Harriet Beecher Stowe 

Daguerreotype of Harriet Beecher Stowe from the 1850s via Wikimedia Commons, public domain
Jacqueline Cochran in the 1940s

In 1953 she became the first woman to break the sound barrier 

Image via Wikimedia Commons, public domain
On September 15th, 1853 Antoinette Brown Blackwell became the first ordained female minister of a recognized Christian denomination in the United States. 

Image via Wikimedia Commons, public domain
In September 1948 Congresswoman Margaret Chase Smith was elected Senator from Maine.
She became the first woman elected to both houses of Congress.

Image of Margaret from 1943 via Wikimedia Commons, public domain
Lucile Atcherson Curtis in 1922

Lucile was the first female to serve as a United States Consular Officer 

Image via Wikipedia Commons, public domain
Susan B. Anthony about 4 years after she founded the New York Women’s Temperance Society 

Image via Wikimedia Commons, public domain
Isabel Cobb
The first female medical doctor in the Indian Territory 

Image via Wikimedia Commons, public domain
"No mortal ever has been, no mortal ever will be like the soul just launched on the sea of life.”

 - Elizabeth Cady Stanton 

American women's rights activist Elizabeth Cady Stanton was born on November 12th, 1815 in Johnstown, New York. 

Image via Wikimedia Commons, public domain
“Nellie Bly, the original investigative journalist was the pen name of Elizabeth Cochrane. From undercover reporting that revealed conditions in a New York mental hospital to an 1889 'round-the-
World trip in 72 days Nellie Bly enthralled readers and inspired other journalists." 

Submitted by Roger Keehner 

Image from Wikimedia Commons, public domain in the U.S.
"Major Charity Adams Earley was born on December 5th, 1918. Maj. Earley commanded the 6888th Central Postal Directory Battalion, a unit charged with efficiently handling mail for the 2 million G.I.’s assigned to Europe in WW2. The 6888th's motto was "No Mail, Low Morale."

- Submitted by Roger Keehner 

Image via Wikimedia Commons via the U.S.
Dept. of Defense, public domain
On December 9th, 1906 Admiral Grace Hopper was
born. Computer pioneer and developer of the COBOL programming language Hopper served more than 42 years, retiring at age 79 in 1986. 

- Submitted by Roger Keehner 

Image via Department of the Navy via Wikimedia Commons, public domain in the U.S.
Bertha Lamme Feicht, the first female to receive a degree in mechanical engineering from Ohio State University, was born on December 16th, 1869 in Clark County, Ohio. 

Image via Wikimedia Commons, no known restrictions
Carrie Nation was a STRONG believer in temperance in early 20th century America. Not only did she lead anti-alcohol groups in prayers, hymns, and demonstrations, she physically attacked saloons by throwing rocks and swinging a hatchet. She was arrested 32 times. NPG via Wikimedia Commons, Creative Commons CC0-1.0 Universal Public Domain Dedication.
American women’s rights activist and abolitionist Lucretia Mott was born on January 3rd, 1793 in 
Nantucket, Massachusetts.

She was so passionate about equality that she traveled to London, England to attend the World’s Anti-Slavery Convention in 1840.

Her signature appears first on the Declaration of Sentiments.

Image of Lucretia Mott c. mid to late 1800s via Wikimedia Commons, public domain
On January 7th, 1896 The Boston Cooking-School Cook Book was published.  It was written by Fannie Farmer who used specific measurements in her recipes rather than a “pinch of this” or a “dash of that.” 

Image of Fannie Farmer via Wikimedia Commons, public domain
Senator Hattie W. Caraway at the U.S. Capitol in the mid 1930s

On January 12th, 1932 Hattie W. Caraway became the first female elected to the U.S. Senate.

Image via Wikimedia Commons, public domain
Jackie Bouvier on vacation at the Kennedy compound in Hyannis Port, Massachusetts during the summer of 1953 

via Alamy
Nurses had served in every conflict since the American Revolution, like the Spanish-American War volunteers shown here, but on February 2, 1901 the Army Nurse Corps was officially established. A respectful salute to the brave soldiers who care for their fellow soldiers! 

- Submitted by Roger Keehner 

Image via Wikimedia Commons, public domain
“The older I get, the greater power I seem to have to help the world.”

- Susan B. Anthony who was born on February 15th, 1820 in Adams, Massachusetts

Image of Susan B. Anthony wearing a veil c. 1890 via Wikimedia Commons, public domain
Mary Tepe also known as “French Mary” served with the 114th Pennsylvania Zouave infantry as a vivandière (canteen carrier).

According to sources she was hit in the ankle at the Battle of Chancellorsville and was also present at the battles of Gettysburg, Fredericksburg and First Bull Run to assist soldiers. 

Image via Wikimedia Commons, public domain
Watch purchased by Susan B. Anthony with money from her first paycheck, around 1838

via National Museum of American History, no known restrictions
Yeomanettes attached to the Naval Reserve in San Francisco

- 1918

via Wikimedia Commons, public domain
Lorena Craig at the Naval Air Base in Corpus Christi, Texas in 1942 

Lorena had worked in a department store but duty called her to support her Country during WWII.

Image via Wikimedia Commons, public domain
This picture dated October, 1944 shows four members of the Women's Army Corps at Fort Des Moines, a training center for WACs in lowa.

They're identified (left to right) as Mae, Mary, Angie, and Helen.

Image and caption from the personal collection of Roger Keehner 

Thanks Roger!
Profile image of pioneer journalist Jane Cunningham Croly who started the first professional women’s club in the United States (Sorosis) on March 21st, 1868.

Jane married her husband David on Valentine’s Day in 1856. 

Image via Wikimedia Commons, public domain
Amelia Earhart waving from an autogiro

c. 1930 

via National Portrait Gallery, Smithsonian Institution; gift of George R. Rinhart, in memory of Joan Rinhart, no known restrictions
Clara Barton at desk in 1904, about 4 years before she published her autobiography, The Story of My Childhood 

Image via National Portrait Gallery, Smithsonian Institution, no known restrictions
Nurse Maria M. C. Hall who was sent to the White House to treat Tad Lincoln who was suffering from typhoid fever after his brother Willie passed away from the same illness. 

Afterwards she cared for wounded soldiers in Virginia and Maryland during the Civil War. 

Image via Wikimedia Commons, no known restrictions
A photo of Julia Ward Howe dated May 5th, 1909. Julia wrote the lyrics to Battle Hymn of The Republic.

Her mother who shared her first name, Julia Rush Cutler Ward, was also a poet. Sadly she died when Julia Ward Howe was only 5 years old, about a week after giving birth to Julia’s baby sister Anne in 1824. 

Image via Library of Congress, no known restrictions
United States Navy Flight Nurse Jane Kendeigh caring for a patient during a flight from Iwo Jima 

- 1945 

Jane was the first U.S. Navy Flight Nurse to fly to an active combat zone 

Image via Wikimedia Commons, public domain
Civil War Union Army surgeon and POW Mary Edwards Walker c. 1860-1870 

She is the only woman to receive the Medal of Honor in U.S. History 

Image: National Portrait Gallery, Smithsonian Institution; Frederick Hill Meserve Collection, no known restrictions
The first female US Army officers to achieve the rank of brigadier general - Anna Mae Violet Hays (left) and
Elizabeth Hoisington (right) were promoted on June 11, 1970. Both generals, shown here with former First Lady Mamie Eisenhower, had served for 28 years, joining the Army in 1942. 

- Submitted by Roger Keehner 

Image from US Army via Wikimedia Commons, public domain in the US
Susan B. Anthony at desk in 1905

On June 18th, 1873 Susan B. Anthony received a $100 fine for voting in the Presidential election the year prior. 

She never paid the fine. 

Image via Wikimedia Commons, public domain