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On today's date December 8th, 1765, Eli Whitney was born in Westborough, Massachusetts.
Before inventing the cotton gin, young Eli watched and learned from his father (Eli Sr.) who was both a farmer and a mechanic.

"When he had nothing to do on his land, he (Eli Sr.) made chairs for his neighbors, and wheels for their wagons and carts. Beside a complete kit of tools for cabinet-making, he had a lathe to turn his chair posts and rails. All this came under the eye of his son as a child, and under his fingers, as he grew big enough to handle a jackplane or a gimlet. Eli soon preferred tasks in the shop to tasks on the farm; his handiness with hammers, chisels, and saws proved him right. At school he stood high in arithmetic, and in nothing else; it was at his workbench that he excelled. When he was twelve he made a fiddle, having learned what woods and strings were to be chosen; his dexterity was rewarded with an instrument of fairly good tone. He now began to repair fiddles for Westboro musicians, and to execute other work requiring a nice touch. His father had a watch that had cost him a round sum. Eli thought it the most wonderful piece of mechanism he had ever seen. One Sunday, while the family were absent at church, Eli, who had feigned illness and stayed at home, took the watch to pieces and reassembled its parts. No mishap befell the exploit, but Eli's father was an austere man, so that years elapsed before his son divulged this daring feat."

From Leading American Inventors by George Iles. Published in 1912 via The Library of Congress
American inventor and blacksmith John Deere was born on February 7th, 1804 in Rutland, Vermont.

“His father, a native of England, came to America early in the nineteenth century. His mother, born in Connecticut, was the daughter of a captain in the British army, who, after serving his King throughout the Revolutionary War, became an American citizen. In 1805 the father located in Middlebury, Vt., where for nearly seven years he conducted a merchant tailoring business. He then left to return to England on a visit, but was never again heard from. The mother conducted the business until her death in 1826, at the age of forty-six years. In Middlebury, among the rugged scenes of his humble New England home, John Deere entered upon a life of toil and close economy characteristic of the people of his native State. He received a good common school education and in his early youth, before he was sixteen years old, his industry and ambition were keenly exhibited. He ground bark for a tanner, receiving a pair of shoes and a suit of clothes as his pay. In the year 1821, when seventeen years old, he was sent to Middlebury College, but left and apprenticed himself to Capt. Benjamin Lawrence, of Middlebury, to learn the blacksmith trade and particularly to assist his mother.”

From: The Cyclopaedia of American biography. New enl. ed. of Appleton's cyclopaedia of American biography, originally edited by James Grant Wilson and John Fiske. Revision to 1914 complete under editorial supervision of Charles Dick and James E. Homans, published in 1918. Source says not in copyright

Image: John Deere portrait via Wikimedia Commons, public domain
A photo of Alexander Graham Bell from 1904

"As I look back and see the points in my early life that led to my work on the telephone,” said Dr. Bell, "I see that one important element was my love of music. I could play the piano by ear before I could read or write. I knew, too, all sorts of musical instruments in a sort of way. I knew how they were made and the way in which sounds were produced.”

"A second element of even greater importance was that I came of a family that had made a study of oral speech for two generations before me. People who lisped or stammered came to my father to be taught how to place the vocal organs in forming sounds." 

Then Dr. Bell went on to relate how his father 
encouraged his boys to make a hobby of voice 

''You are fond of making things” he said one day. "Do you think you could make a speaking-machine?!”

From: Conquests of invention; Cyrus H. McCormick, Elias Howe, Thomas A. Edison, William Murdock, Robert Fulton, Guglielmo Marconi, Charles Goodyear, George Westinghouse, Eli Whitney, Alexander Graham Bell by Mary Rosetta Parkman, source says no known restrictions

Image via Wikimedia Commons, public domain
Albert Einstein at 16 years old

c. 1895

via Wikimedia Commons, public domain
Edison seated with his inventions

- June 16th, 1888

via Library of Congress, no known restrictions
On June 20th, 1840 Samuel F. B. Morse received a patent for his "Improvement in the mode of communicating information by signals by the application of electro-magnetism”

Image: Samuel Morse in 1857 by Mathew Brady via Wikimedia Commons, public domain
On July 9th, 1802 Thomas Davenport was born in Williamstown, Vermont.

Thirty-two years later Thomas invented the first direct current electric motor in America.

Image via Wikimedia Commons, public domain
"Our virtues and our failings are inseparable, like force and matter. When they separate, man is no more.”

Inventor Nikola Tesla was born on July 10th, 1856.
He became an American Citizen in July of 1891.

Image: Tesla c. 1900 via Wikimedia Commons, public domain
On July 14th, 1914 American physicist and engineer Robert H. Goddard received patent #1,103,503 for "a new and useful Rocket Apparatus.”

A little less than 12 years later Goddard launched the world’s first liquid-fueled rocket.

Image via Wikimedia Commons, public domain
Edison in his New Jersey laboratory 

- 1901

via Wikimedia Commons, public domain
Alexander Graham Bell with three granddaughters 

- 1908

via Wikimedia Commons, public domain
Civil War Veteran and inventor George Westinghouse was born on October 6th, 1846 in Central Bridge in upstate New York.

A few years after the war he developed his most notable invention which was an air braking system for rail trains which saved countless lives.

Image: George Westinghouse sometime before 1884 via Wikimedia Commons, public domain
American inventor Lee de Forest was born on August 26th, 1873 in Council Bluffs, Iowa.

One of his inventions in 1919 was a process of recording sound on film. Sound waves were captured onto film material as linear traces which could be amplified.

Image: Lee de Forest seated with one of his inventions via Wikimedia Commons, public domain.
On November 2nd, 1844 American Inventor John J. Loud was born in Weymouth, Massachusetts.

Just a few days before his 44th birthday, Loud received a patent for what is believed to be the first ball point pen. 

Image: John J. Loud in 1866 via Wikimedia Commons, public domain
On today's date May 5th, 1861: American engineer and inventor Peter Cooper Hewitt was born in New York City, New York.
Peter invented the mercury vapor lamp and the mercury vapor rectifier.

Photo: Peter Cooper Hewitt By Bain News Service photograph [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons
Elias Howe Jr. was born on July 9th, 1819 in Spencer, Massachusetts.

Howe made significant improvements to the sewing machine and is considered to be the inventor of the basic concepts that are used in today’s models.

“During the winter of 1844-45, Howe labored steadily at his machine. So clear and vivid was his imagination that he seemed to be copying a model as it stood before him, instead of giving form to conceptions which were as yet conceptions only. This picturing faculty had the happy effect that Howe was not delayed by a single misfit as part 
joined part week after week. By April, 1845, the stitch- forming mechanism was advanced to the point where it sewed with evenness and smoothness. Within less than a month Howe finished his model, and his invention, in every 
essential feature, was complete. In July it sewed a suit of clothes for Fisher, and another suit for himself. These garments were of strong material, yet their stitches out-lasted the cloth. Every contrivance in Howe's original model has since his day been bettered or transmuted, for what is one inventor as compared with all other inventors? 
And many new devices which never entered the head of Elias Howe have been added to his model during the past sixty years. But at this hour no successful sewing machine plies in freedom from debt to Howe's design of 1845.”

From: Leading American inventors by George Iles, published in 1912
Source says not in copyright 

Image of Elias Howe Jr. by Southwarth and Hawes via Wikimedia Commons, public domain, c. 1850
The inventor of Tupperware, Mr. Earl Silas Tupper
was born on July 28th, 1907 in Berlin, New Hampshire.

Here’s a vintage ad from 1958 for the famous airtight containers from Florida Memory via Wikimedia Commons, public domain
American inventor Elmer Ambrose Sperry was born on October 12th, 1860 in Cincinnatus, New York.

Sperry invented or improved numerous technologies including gyrocompasses that had a significant impact on ship navigation.

Image Elmer Sperry via Wikimedia Commons, public domain
American inventor and breakfast cereal business founder Charles W. Post was born on October 26th, 1854 in Springfield, Illinois.

Image: Post c. 1914 via Wikimedia Commons, public domain
"On the 20th of June, 1793, Mr. Whitney presented his petition for a patent to Mr. Jefferson, then Secretary of State; but the prevalence of the yellow fever in Philadelphia, (which was then the seat of government,) prevented his concluding the business relative to the patent, until several months afterwards. To prevent being anticipated, he took however the precaution to make oath to the invention before the Notary Public of the city of New Haven, which he did on the 28th of October, of the same year. 

Mr. Jefferson, who had much curiosity in regard to mechanical inventions, took a peculiar interest in this machine, and addressed to the inventor an obliging letter, desiring farther particulars respecting it, and expressing a wish to procure one for his own use. Mr. Whitney accordingly sketched the history of the invention, and of the construction and performances of the machine...

“It is about a year (says he) since I first turned my attention to constructing this machine, at which time I was in the State of Georgia. Within about ten days after my first conception of the plan, I made a small, though imperfect model. Experiments with this encouraged me to make one on a larger scale; but the extreme difficulty of procuring workmen and proper materials in Georgia, prevented my completing the larger one until some time in April last. This, though much larger than my first attempt, is not above one third as large as the machines may be made with convenience. The cylinder is only two feet two inches in length, and six inches diameter. It is turned by hand,- and requires the strength of one man to keep it in constant motion. It is the stated task of one person to clean fifty weight, (I mean fifty pounds after it is separated from the seed,) of the green seed cotton per day." — In the same letter Mr. Jefferson assured Mr. Whitney, that a patent would be granted as soon as the model was lodged in the Patent Office. In mentioning the favorable notice of Mr. Jefferson to his friend Stebbins, he adds, with characteristic moderation, I hope, by perseverance, I shall make something of it yet.”

American inventor Eli Whitney was born on December 8th, 1765 in Westborough, Massachusetts.

From: Memoir of Eli Whitney, esq. by Denison Olmsted, published in 1846
source says no known restrictions 

Image via Wikimedia Commons, public domain
“Wright Brothers' 1903 Aeroplane Kitty Hawk in First Flight”

via Wikimedia Commons, public domain
A portrait of Orville Wright dated December 13th, 1928.

Did you know that Orville Wright lived until the late 1940s; more than 35 years after the death of his brother Wilbur Wright?

Image via Wikimedia Commons, public domain
Thomas Alva Edison was born on February 11th, 1847 in Milan, Ohio.

Image via NYPL Digital Collections, no known restrictions
Daguerreotype of Samuel F. Morse from 1845

Seven years before this image was taken in January 1838 Morse revealed his invention, the telegraph, in New Jersey.
"The scenery of the old parks often has great beauty of a special character, which is the result of the circumstances under which the more ancient and famous of them have been formed. These were originally enclosed many centuries since for keeping deer. In choosing ground for this purpose, rich land having broad ​stretches of greensward pasturage, with trees more sparingly distributed than usually in the forest, was to be preferred, and this character would be increased intentionally by felling a portion of the trees, and unintentionally by the browsing of the deer; water, either flowing or still, was a necessity.”

- Frederick Law Olmsted from his writing titled "Park” written in 1879 

A Short Biography of Frederick Law Olmsted is now available at Heartfelt History Gift Shoppe Premium.  
Now through Valentine’s Day, buy 3 books and receive 33% off your book order.
On February 10th, 1863 Alanson Crane of Virginia received a patent for his fire extinguisher.

Image via Shutterstock
Thomas Edison experimenting in his laboratory 

c. 1920 

via Wikimedia Commons, public domain
American inventor Robert Fulton was born on November 14th, 1765 in Lancaster County, Pennsylvania...

"No wonder Napoleon was impatient to learn more about Fulton and willingly admitted that his invention might "change the face of the world." Bignon, the French historian, wrote in 1829 that had Napoleon listened to Fulton this important letter might have changed the history of Europe. He supposes that had there existed a single steamboat in France at that time, the workshops would have immediately been busied in 'multiplying the original.’ In a few years one or two hundred steamships, towing behind them transports filled with soldiers, would have been ready with their leader for the boldest of enterprises. Bignon declared that the men and the times alike were ready for the novelty. England would have been forced to submit to the terms of peace laid down by France. "Thus may the fate of nations depend upon a new idea ; thus nature conceals within her bosom many unknown forces of which a single one is sufficient to change the destiny of the world." 

But Napoleon did not embrace the opportunity. 
His secretary said that when he presented Fulton's 
memorial to him he exclaimed disdainfully, 
"Bah! Away with your visionists!” 

And Bignon, who took the trouble later to talk 
with the members of Napoleon's commission, said 
that they excused their lack of appreciation by the 
statement that Fulton's plan was accompanied by a number of "foolish ideas" which obscured their 
view of the great underlying truth. "Put not your trust in scientists," exclaims Bignon, in the light of Fulton's success. 

However, Lord Acton, the English authority upon this period of the world's history, when asked what event he considered of greatest importance in the 19th century, replied, "The sinking of Fulton's boat on the Seine," meaning that accident alone turned Napoleon from its acceptance. 

The words of several historians prove that the 
sunny day when Fulton's steamboat voyaged back 
and forth upon the waters of the Seine, riding in 
triumph over the hidden wreck of its ill-fated predecessor, was really a great moment in French 

Fulton was master of its movement and supremely happy in his accomplishment. He saw, with unshaken faith, as it is easy for us to see to-day, in a review of the history of the past century, that his twice-built boat on the river Seine was the forerunner of all the gigantic fleets of steamboats which now ride upon the waters of the world.”

From: Robert Fulton by Alice Crary Sutcliffe, published in 1915
Source says not in copyright 

Image: Fulton’s first steamboat on the Seine, Paris via Wikimedia Commons, no known restrictions
Gail Borden, the American who invented condensed milk in the early 1850s, was born on November 9th, 1801 in Norwich, New York.

Image via Wikimedia Commons, public domain
"Then came the historic three days in electric 
lighting, ending October 21, 1879. Edison, rapidly thinking over possible materials to carbonize, 
realized that cotton was specially prepared and 
spun to be as strong as possible in proportion to 
its fineness. He sent a boy out for a spool of cotton. Even Charles Bachelor, his closest associate, pinned little hope to the plan. How could so weak a thing resist the force of a current that would melt the hardest of metals? 

A loop of the thread, about two inches long, was 
laid in a nickel mold, clamped and placed in a muffle furnace, where it was left for five hours. It was then taken out and allowed to cool. Next, the mold was opened and the carbonized thread taken out. It broke to pieces at the lightest touch. Another piece of cotton was carbonized and it broke the same way. 

For two days and two nights, without rest or 
sleep, Edison and Bachelor worked on this one experiment alone Two whole spools of thread 
were used, in two-inch pieces; from this one may 
realize how many hundreds of disappointments lay in this one heartbreaking series of tests. Only twice in all that time did they succeed in taking from the mold a perfect and unbroken filament, but when they attempted to attach it to the conducting wire, it broke. Another, which showed good signs of strength, was shattered when Bachelor breathed in its direction. All through the experiments, every time either man breathed, he turned his face away from the thread lest the slight current of air should shatter it. 

Bachelor was extraordinarily deft and delicate 
with his hands, and a third carbon was made and 
successfully inserted in the lamp. The air was exhausted and the current turned on. As the current flowed through the carbonized bit of cotton thread, it began to glow with a soft light. 

In what was little less than an agony of expectation, Edison and Bachelor watched the thread burn. Second after second, minute after minute passed, and the thin filament glowed on steadily. Little by little the current was increased until there was force sufficient to have melted the platinum. But the little carbonized cotton thread burned on. It was still burning, when, after his session of three days and nights, Edison went to bed. It was still burning, when, twenty-three hours later, he got up. It burned for forty-five hours. The problem of electric lighting was solved.”

From: Thomas Alva Edison by Francis Rolt-Wheeler, published in 1915
Source says not in copyright 

Image: Cabinet card photo of Thomas Edison in 1879 via Wikimedia Commons, public domain
On today's date May 1st, 1888: Nikola Tesla was granted 7 U.S. Patents. 

U.S. Patent 0,381,968 - Electro magnetic motor 
U.S. Patent 0,381,969 - Electro Magnetic Motor 
U.S. Patent 0,381,970 - System of Electrical Distribution
U.S. Patent 0,382,279 - Electro Magnetic Motor 
U.S. Patent 0,382,280 - Electrical Transmission of Power  
U.S. Patent 0,382,281 - Electrical Transmission of Power 
U.S. Patent 0,382,282 - Method of Converting and Distributing Electric Currents

Photo: Tesla shown reading in front of his high-voltage coil transformer at his East Houston St., New York laboratory, published in May 1896 - Public Domain via Wikimedia Commons
A British card from the early 1900s titled:

“Samuel Colt. Colt's revolver”

The back of the card includes the following: 
"...Became a sailor at the age of 17, and, on his first voyage, he made a model in wood of his famous revolving pistol”

On today’s date February 25th, 1836 Samuel Colt received a patent for his revolving gun.

Image via NYPL Digital Collection, no known restrictions
"Orville Wright and Lieutenant Lahm of the United States Signal Corps making the world's record flight at Fort Myer, on July 27--The aeroplane made fifty miles at a speed of about forty miles an hour.”

- July 27th, 1909

via Library of Congress, no known restrictions
John Muir 

c. 1901

via Wikimedia Commons, public domain
Robert Mills, the architect of the Washington Monument in Washington, D.C. was born on August 12th, 1781 in Charleston, South Carolina.

Ultimately his winning design was altered after a delay of the monument’s construction of over two decades. 

Image: Design of the National Washington Monument in the City of Washington, c. 1845-1848 via Wikimedia Commons, public domain
Frank Lloyd Wright

Image dated March 1st, 1926

via Library of Congress, no known restrictions
American scientist Linus Pauling was born on February 28th, 1901 in Portland, Oregon.

He was awarded both the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1954 and the Nobel Peace Prize in 1962.

Image via Wikimedia Commons, public domain
Philadelphian Benjamin Chew Tilghman who invented the process of sandblasting around 1870

Image via Wikimedia Commons, public domain
Joseph Leidy 

In addition to naming the Hadrosaurus foulkii which became the official Dinosaur of New Jersey; Leidy is considered to be the first person to use a microscope to solve a murder mystery.
Alexander Graham Bell's Telephone patent ⠀
Issued March 7th, 1876 ⠀
via Wikimedia Commons, public domain
Orville and Wilbur Wright

c. 1909

via Wikimedia Commons, public domain
A portrait from 1843 of Danish-American chemist Martin Hans Boyè who lived in Philadelphia at the time.

"Our knowledge of inanimate matter must refer either to its place, or to its nature; we therefore get two divisions of Physics of Inanimate matter, Physics proper, or Natural Philosophy, which treats of the place of inanimate matter, and Chemistry, which treats of its nature.”

From: A treatise on pneumatics: being the physics of gases, including Martin Hans Boyè, published in 1855
Source says not in copyright 

Image via Wikimedia Commons, public domain
Alexander Graham Bell's box telephone from 1876

via Wikimedia Commons, public domain
American inventor of the carpet sweeper, Melville R. Bissell was born on September 25th, 1843 in Hartwick, New York.

Image via Wikimedia Commons, public domain
The patent for Eli Whitney’s Cotton Gin

Dated March 14th, 1794 

via Wikimedia Commons, public domain
On March 23rd, 1857 American inventor Elisha Graves Otis had his world’s first serviceable passenger elevator installed at the E.V. Haughwout and Co. Building on Broadway in Manhattan, New York. 

Image: E.V. Haughwout and Co. Building two years later in 1859 via Wikimedia Commons, public domain
"A good navigator anticipates dangerous situations well before they arise, and always stays 'ahead of the vessel.’”

- Nathaniel Bowditch from his compendium The American Practical Navigator, published in 1802.

Bowditch was born on March 26th, 1773 in Salem, Massachusetts.

Image via Wikimedia Commons, public domain
The Wright Brothers at their home in Dayton, Ohio 

- 1909 

via Wikimedia Commons, public domain
On April 10th, 1849 American inventor Walter Hunt from New York State received his patent for the safety pin.

Images via Wikimedia Commons, public domain
"Thousands of pages had been written on the so-called science of flying, but for the most part the ideas set forth, like the designs for machines, were mere speculations and probably ninety per cent was false.”

On April 16th, 1867 Wilbur Wright was born in Millville, Indiana.

Image via NYPL Digital Collections, no known restrictions
Samuel Morse was born on April 27th, 1791 in 
Charlestown, Massachusetts.

In his late 20s, Morse who was already an accomplished artist, painted a portrait of President James Monroe.

Image of Morse in 1866 via Wikimedia Commons, public domain
Thomas Edison with fellow engineers and technicians of his Menlo Park laboratory 

Edison is leaning against the middle arch on the right with his hands in his pockets.

c. 1880

via Shutterstock
On May 6th, 1851 American scientist John Gorrie received a patent for his ice making machine.

Image via Wikimedia Commons, public domain
"Very soon after the establishment of the independence of the States by the peace of 1783, the enterprise of their citizens was directed to a development of the natural advantages of their widely extended dominions. Before the war of the revolution the inhabited parts of the colony of New York were limited to less than a tenth of her possessions. A narrow belt of country, extending for a short distance on either side of the Hudson, with a similar occupation of fifty miles on the banks of the Mohawk, together with the islands of Nassau and Staten, and a few insulated settlements on chosen land along the margins of streams, composed the country that was then inhabited by less than two hundred thousand souls. Within the short period we have mentioned, her population has spread itself over five degrees of latitude and seven of longitude, and has swelled to the powerful number of nearly a million and a half, who are maintained in abundance, and can look forward to ages before the evil day must arrive, when their possessions will become unequal to their wants.”

- James Fenimore Cooper from his novel The Pioneers published in 1823
Source says not in copyright 

Image: Daguerreotype of James Fenimore Cooper c. 1850 via Wikimedia Commons, public domain
A portrait of American businessman Herman Hollerith who invented an electric tabulating machine in the late 1800s.

He also started a company that eventually changed its name to IBM. 

Image via Wikimedia Commons, public domain
An image from the patent granted to Jacob Davis and Levi Strauss on May 20th, 1873 for “fastening pocket-openings” aka jeans 

via Wikimedia Commons, public domain
Orville Wright in his Wright Flyer II during a flight which lasted a little more than 40 seconds in Dayton, Ohio 

- 1904

Image via Shutterstock
On June 15th, 1844 Charles Goodyear received a patent for vulcanized rubber. 

Daguerreotype of Charles Goodyear via Wikimedia Commons, public domain
A photograph of a rather large kite ascending into the air, large enough to carry a passenger 

This "air ship” kite was constructed by Charles Lamson of Portland, Maine.

- Image dated June 26th, 1897 

Image via Library of Congress, no known restrictions
On June 30th, 1808 American inventor from Connecticut, Simeon North, received a contract to produce two thousand Naval boarding pistols from the U.S. Government.
Thomas Edison around the age of 14

c. 1861

via Wikimedia Commons, public domain
A cabinet card of Union officer and POW Eli Lilly before he founded the Eli Lilly Company. 

Eli Lilly was born on July 8th, 1838 in Baltimore, Maryland. 

Image via Library of Congress, no known restrictions
The first lawn string trimmer was invented by WWII and Korean War U.S Army Veteran George Ballas in 1971.

Image via Shutterstock
Photograph of Albert Einstein from 100 years ago 

- 1921

via Wikimedia Commons, public domain
Thomas A. Edison and the dynamo that generated the first commercial electric light

Image via Wikimedia Commons, public domain
Wilbur and Orville Wright standing with President William Howard Taft and others in 1909

On July 27th, 1909 Orville Wright successfully flew a passenger plane for more than an hour and set a new flight duration record.

Image via Wikimedia Commons, public domain
Thomas Edison at about the age of 31 in 1878

Two years earlier on August 8th, 1876 Edison received a patent for his Autographic Printing (Mimeograph) machine.

Image via Wikimedia Commons, public domain
American forester & 28th Governor of Pennsylvania Gifford Pinchot was born on August 11th, 1865 in Simsbury, Connecticut.

A photo of Gifford Pinchot and his family outdoors c. 1918

via Wikimedia Commons, public domain
On August 26th, 1791 American inventor John Fitch received a federal patent for his steamboat.

There is a portion of a highway in Connecticut that became a boulevard that is named in his honor. 

Image via Wikimedia Commons, public domain
Albert Einstein as a young teen with his sister Maria (Maja)

via Wikimedia Commons, public domain
An image from an advertisement for Kodak cameras in 1914

On September 4th, 1888 George Eastman received a patent for his roll-film camera.

Image via Wikimedia Commons, public domain
Civil War Veteran, POW and dentist Frank Abbott, who developed numerous dental instruments that are still used today, was born on September 5th, 1836 in Shapleigh, Maine.

Image via Wikimedia Commons, public domain
Machine turning over with Orville Wright aboard, Kitty Hawk, NC

- 1911

via Wikimedia Commons, public domain
On September 12th, 1818 Richard Jordan Gatling was born in Hertford County, North Carolina.

In addition to inventing the Gatling gun in 1861, he also developed improvements in agricultural machinery and other equipment.

Image via Wikimedia Commons, public domain
Philadelphia engineer Frederick Graff was the first person to receive a patent for the cast iron fire hydrant.

Image via Wikimedia Commons, public domain
American botanist and medical doctor Alvan Wentworth Chapman was born on September 28th, 1809 in Southampton, Massachusetts. 

He is most known for writing “Flora of the southern United States: containing an abridged description of the flowering plants and ferns of Tennessee, North and South Carolina, Georgia, Alabama, Mississippi, and Florida: arranged according to the natural system.”

Image via Wikimedia Commons, public domain
American physician Dr. Virginia Apgar with newborn, dated October 2nd, 1966

Dr. Apgar developed the Apgar score for determining the health of newborns.

Image via Library of Congress, no known restrictions
The Wright Flyer III in flight in early October 1905

On October 5th, 1905 Wilbur Wright completed a flight of nearly 25 miles in just under 40 minutes in southwestern Ohio. 

Image via Wikimedia Commons, public domain
Launch of the steam frigate Fulton the First, at New York, 29th. Oct. 1814.

The vessel was named after American innovator Robert Fulton who passed away in February of the following year. 

Image via NYPL Digital Collections, public domain
Dayton, Ohio in 1942 

An assembly line in a plant that once made cash registers had been converted in order to manufacture magazines for 20mm anti-aircraft guns.

On today’s date November 4th, 1879 James Ritty of Dayton, Ohio received a patent for his Cash Register & Indicator.

Image via Library of Congress, no known restrictions
The inventor of Basketball, James Naismith, was born on November 6th, 1861 in Ontario, Canada.
He became an American Citizen in 1925.

He served with the 1st Kansas Infantry Division during the Pancho Villa Expedition and was a volunteer chaplain in France during WWI. 

Image via Wikimedia Commons, public domain
In November 1939 American scientist Ernest Orlando Lawrence received a Nobel Prize in Physics for his invention of the cyclotron. 

He was the first person from South Dakota to receive a Nobel Prize. 

Image of Ernest Lawrence via Wikimedia Commons,  public domain
Robert Fulton, the American inventor of the first commercially successful steamboat, was born in Lancaster County, Pennsylvania on November 14th, 1765.

In his late forties, he and a friend were crossing the ice covered Hudson River and his friend fell through the ice. Robert rescued him but he later contracted pneumonia and passed away.

Image via NYPL Digital Collections, no known restrictions
American inventor Charles Francis Jenkins inspecting a mechanism to broadcast motion pictures via TV

c. 1928

via Shutterstock
Gifford Pinchot at his desk in 1890

On December 6th, 1891 after receiving a recommendation from Frederick Law Olmsted, Gifford Pinchot was hired by Vanderbilt to manage the forest at Biltmore Estate in South Carolina. 

Image via Wikimedia Commons, public domain
"Father of American Grape Culture” Nicholas Longworth was born on January 16th, 1783 in Newark, New Jersey.

Longworth moved to Cincinnati, Ohio in his early 20s and established vineyards there. Champagne produced by these vineyards were sold across the US and in Europe where critics said it was be better than champagnes from France. 

Image via Wikimedia Commons, public domain
Nikola Tesla's personal exhibit at the 1893 Chicago World's Columbian Exposition 

via Wikimedia Commons, public domain
Henry Drushel Perky, who was born Ohio, is the man who invented shredded wheat 

Image via Wikimedia Commons, public domain
US Patent drawing of Thomas Edison’s Incandescent Light Bulb labeled as “Electric-Lamp” dated January 27th, 1880.

Image via Wikimedia Commons, public domain
American chemist Ira Remsen who ran the laboratory where the sweetener saccharin was identified was born on February 10th, 1846 in New York City.
Both Remsen and chemist Constantin Fahlberg published a research article on the newfound sweetener. 

Image of Ira Remsen c. 1902 via Wikimedia Commons, public domain
On February 21st, 1842 John James Greenough received a patent for his improved sewing machine.  It was the first patent for a sewing machine in the U.S. 

Image: Daguerreotype of a woman with a sewing machine in 1853 via Library of Congress, no known restrictions
Interior of a pneumatic passenger car that ran along Alfred Ely Beach’s subterranean pneumatic transit system in New York City which began service on February 26th, 1870.

This predecessor of the NY City subway system lasted about three years. 

Image from Rawpixel via Wikimedia Commons, CC BY SA 4.0
On February 27th, 1883 Oscar Hammerstein I received a patent for his cigar-rolling machine 

Image of Oscar in his workshop c. 1910 via National Portrait Gallery, Smithsonian Institution
American inventor Joseph Francis who invented the life-car made of metal and the first to use iron in lifeboats was born on March 12th, 1801 in Boston, Massachusetts.

Image via Wikimedia Commons, public domain
“For some years I have been afflicted with the belief that flight is possible to man.”

- Wilbur Wright, who was born on April 16th, 1867 in 
Millville, Indiana.

Photo of Orville and Wilbur Wright (right) in 1908 via Wikimedia Commons, public domain
American Revolutionary War Veteran, John Adlum,  who later successfully cultivated the Catawba grape was born on April 29th, 1759 in York, Pennsylvania. 

Image via Wikimedia Commons, public domain
Domingo Ghirardelli in San Francisco, about 10 years after he established Ghirardelli Chocolate Company 

c. 1862

Image via Wikimedia Commons, public domain
On May 20th, 1873 

Levi Strauss and Jacob Davis were issued a patent for their “Improvement in Fastening Pocket-Openings” or denim jeans with rivets.

Images via Wikimedia Commons, public domain
Alexander Graham Bell at about the age of 14 or 15

c. 1861

via Wikimedia Commons, public domain
Visionary architect and designer Frank Lloyd Wright was born on June 8, 1867. He designed over 1,000
buildings of different types throughout his long lifetime. Look around; there might be one of his structures near you. 
Wright's son, John Lloyd Wright, invented Lincoln Logs in 1918! 

- Submitted by Roger Keehner 

Image from LOC via Wikimedia Commons, public domain in the US